JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
SACRIFICE – The act of offering to a deity for the purpose of doing homage, winning favor, or securing pardon; that which is offered or consecrated. The late generic term for "sacrifice" in Hebrew is , the verb being , used in connection...
SAINT-JOHN'S-BREAD – Fruit of the carobtree. It is not mentioned in the Masoretic text of the Old Testament, though Cheyne assumes that in three passages (II Kings vi. 25, xviii. 27 = Isa. xxxvi. 12; Isa. i. 20) ("carob-fruit") should be read...
SALT – Biblical Data: A condiment for food. From earliest times salt was indispensable to the Israelites for flavoring food. Having a copious supply in their own country, they could obtain it with little trouble. The Dead or "Salt" Sea...
SALVATION – Etymological Meanings. The usual rendering in the English versions for the Hebrew words , , derivatives of the stem , which in the verb occurs only in the "nif'al" and "hif'il" forms. Other Hebrew terms translated by the...
SAMUEL – Biblical Data: Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, of Ramathaim-zophim, in the hill-country of Ephraim (I Sam. i. 1). He was born while Eli was judge. Devoted to Yhwh in fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had long...
SAMUEL – Biblical Data: Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, of Ramathaim-zophim, in the hill-country of Ephraim (I Sam. i. 1). He was born while Eli was judge. Devoted to Yhwh in fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had long...
SAMUEL, BOOKS OF – Biblical Data: Two books in the second great division of the canon, the "Nebi'im," or Prophets, and, more specifically, in the former of its subdivisions, the "Nebi'im Rishonim," or Earlier, Prophets, following upon Joshua and...
SARAH (SARAI) – Biblical Data: Wife of Abraham, who for a long period remained childless (Gen. xi. 29-30). She accompanied her husband from Haran to Canaan (ib. xii. 5). Driven by famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham, fearing that her beauty...
SARAH (SARAI) – Biblical Data: Wife of Abraham, who for a long period remained childless (Gen. xi. 29-30). She accompanied her husband from Haran to Canaan (ib. xii. 5). Driven by famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham, fearing that her beauty...
SARDIS – Ancient city of Asia Minor and capital of Lydia; situated on the Pactolus at the northern base of Mount Tmolus, about sixty miles from Smyrna. The town is first mentioned by Æschylus ("Persæ," ed. Kirchhoff, line 47), and may be...
SATRAP – Ruler of a province in the governmental system of ancient Persia. The Old Persian form of the word, "khshathrapavan" (protector of the kingdom), occurs twice in the inscriptions of Darius Hystaspes at Behistun (iii. 14, 55) with...
SEER – Biblical Data: Rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew , which in I Sam. ix. 9 is reported to have been the old popular designation for the later ("prophet"). The seer was an "ish Elohim," a man of God, and for a...
SEIR – 1. Region that took its name from Seir the Horite, whose descendants occupied it, followed by Edom and his descendants. The earliest reference to the name is found in the Harris Egyptian papyrus, in which Rameses III. says (c....
SELAH – Term of uncertain etymology and grammatical form and of doubtful meaning. It occurs seventy-one times in thirty-nine of the Psalms, and three times in Hab. iii. It is placed at the end of Ps. iii., ix., xxiv., xlvi., and in most...
SEMITES – Term used in a general way to designate those peoples who are said in Gen. x. 21-30 to be the descendants of the patriarch Shem.—Biblical Data: These descendants are enumerated in the passage cited as Elam, Asshur (Assyria),...
SENNACHERIB – King of Assyria, 705-681 B.C.; son and successor of Sargon. His reign was a warlike one, yet it was marked by grandeur in architecture and art. Almost immediately after his accession to the throne Sennacherib was obliged to...
SERAIAH – 1. A scribe, and one of the officials under David (II Sam. viii. 17; comp. xx. 25, where he appears under the name Sheva). In I Kings iv. 3 his sons, Elihoreph and Ahiah, occupy the position of their father (here called Shisha),...
SERAPHIM – Vision of Isaiah. Class of heavenly beings, mentioned only once in the Old Testament, in a vision of the prophet Isaiah (vi. 2 et seq.). Isaiah saw several seraphim, their exact number not being given, standing before the throne...
SERPENT – The following terms are used in the Old Testament to denote serpents of one kind or another: (1) "naḥash," the generic and most frequently used term; (2) "peten" (asp or adder; Deut. xxxii. 33; Isa. xi. 8; et al.), perhaps...
SERVANT OF GOD – Title of honor given to various persons or groups of persons; namely, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (Deut. ix. 27; comp. Ps. cv. 6, 42), Moses (Deut. xxxiv. 5; Josh. i. 1; I Chron. vi. 49; II Chron. xxiv. 9; Neh. x. 29; Dan. ix. 11),...
SETH – Biblical Data: According to Gen. iv. 25, 26 and v. 3-8, Seth was the third son of Adam. He was born after Cain had murdered Abel and when Adam was 130 years old. Seth lived to the age of 912. His eldest son was Enosh, who was...
SETH – Biblical Data: According to Gen. iv. 25, 26 and v. 3-8, Seth was the third son of Adam. He was born after Cain had murdered Abel and when Adam was 130 years old. Seth lived to the age of 912. His eldest son was Enosh, who was...
SHADRACH – Name given by the chief of the eunuchs to Hananiah (Dan. i. 7 et passim). Various theories as to its etymology have been put forward, of which the most likely (Delitzsch, "Liber Daniel," xii.) seems to be that the name is the...
SHALLUM – Biblical Data: 1. King of Israel who dethroned Zechariah, the last of Jehu's dynasty, and succeeded him. He was in turn dethroned by Menahem (II Kings xv. 10-16).2. Son of Josiah, King of Judah (Jer. xxii. 11). Probably the term...
SHALLUM – Biblical Data: 1. King of Israel who dethroned Zechariah, the last of Jehu's dynasty, and succeeded him. He was in turn dethroned by Menahem (II Kings xv. 10-16).2. Son of Josiah, King of Judah (Jer. xxii. 11). Probably the term...