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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
SHAMGAR – Biblical Data: One of the Judges; son of Anath. He smote 600 Philistines with an ox-goad and saved Israel (Judges iii. 31). During his judgeship so unsettled were the times that "the highways were unoccupied, and the travelers...
SHAPHAN – 1. Son of Azaliah and scribe of King Josiah. He received from Hilkiah, the high priest, the book of the Law which had been found in the Temple. Shaphan was one of those sent by the king to the prophetess Huldah (II Kings xxii.;...
SHEAR-JASHUB – Son of the prophet Isaiah; so named by his father as a prophecy that God would restore the Remnant of His people or that "the remnants of Jacob shall return unto the mighty God" (Isa. x. 21). Isaiah took his son with him when he...
SHEBNA – Chamberlain of the king's palace, the office being filled also by Jotham (II Kings xv. 5). Shebna may be identified with the officer designated as "ha-soken" (Isa. xxii 15-19), probably a caretaker or steward (see Bloch,...
SHECHEM – Earliest Mention. 1. City of central Palestine; called Sichem in Gen. xii. 6, A. V.; Shalem, according to some commentators, ib. xxxiii. 18; Sychem in Acts vii. 16; and Sychar in John iv. 5. Its situation is indicated as in...
SHEEP – Biblical Data: The most usual terms for the sheep are "seh" and "kebes" ("keseb"); "kar" (Deut. xxxii. 14; Isa. lviii. 7) denotes the young lamb in pasture; "ṭeleh" (Isa. xl. 11 et al.), the suckling lamb; "ayil," the ram;...
SHEKEL – Name of (1) a weight and of (2) a silver coin in use among the Hebrews.1. Weight: It has long been admitted that the Israelites derived their system of weights and coins from the Babylonians, and both peoples divided the talent...
SHEM – Biblical Data: The eldest of Noah's sons, according to the position and sequence of the names wherever all three are mentioned together; e.g., "and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth" (Gen. v. 32). In the table of nations in Gen....
SHEM – Biblical Data: The eldest of Noah's sons, according to the position and sequence of the names wherever all three are mentioned together; e.g., "and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth" (Gen. v. 32). In the table of nations in Gen....
SHEMAIAH – Prophet in the reign of Rehoboam. He was commissioned to dissuade the king from waging war against the Northern Kingdom after its revolt, because it was the will of God that Israel should form an independent state (I Kings xii....
SHEMONEH 'ESREH – The Three Groups. Collection of benedictions forming the second—the Shema' being the first—important section of the daily prayers at the morning ("Shaḥarit"), afternoon ("Minḥah"), and evening ("'Arbit") services, as well as of...
SHEOL – Position and Form. Hebrew word of uncertain etymology (see Sheol, Critical View), synonym of "bor" (pit), "abaddon" and "shaḥat" (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of "tehom" (abyss).—Biblical Data: It connotes the place...
SHEPHATIAH – Name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament. 1. Son of David and Abital; their fifth child. He was born while his father was still reigning at Hebron (II Sam. iii. 4; I Chron. iii. 3). 2. A Haruphite, and one of the...
SHESHBAZZAR – Prince of Judah, at the head of the first Jews that returned to Jerusalem after the Exile. In 539-538 B.C. Cyrus granted the exiles permission to return. At once a question must have arisen as to the legitimate successor of the...
SHIBBOLETH – Word occurring in different passages of the Bible, sometimes in the singular form, sometimes in the plural, , and once in the status constructus, . It means "flood" (Isa. xxvii. 12; Ps. lxix. 3, 16) or "ear of corn" (Job xxiv....
SHIELD – Like most peoples of antiquity, the Israelites used two kinds of shields—a large one which covered the whole body and was carried by the heavy-armed infantry, and a small, easily managed one, carried by the light-armed troops....
SHIGGAYON – Term used as the superscription of Ps. vii. 1, and, in the form , of Hab. iii. 1, although the Septuagint evidently reads (comp. Ps. lxi. 1). Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and Jerome regarded the word as synonymous with (Ps....
SHILOAH – Locality mentioned in the Old Testament as "the waters of Shiloah" (Isa. viii. 6) and "the pool of Siloah" (Neh. iii. 15). Josephus writes the word Σιλωά, Σιλωᾶς, and Σιλωάμ, while the Arabic name is 'Ain Silwan. The pool was...
SHILOH – City of Ephraim, where were placed, after the settlement in Palestine, the Ark and the sanctuary of Yhwh at which the family of Eli officiated (I Sam. i. 3 et passim, iii. 1 et seq.). As the Ark was not taken back to Shiloh when...
SHIMEI – 1. Biblical Data: Benjamite of Bahurim, son of Gera, "a man of the family of the house of Saul" (II Sam. xvi. 5-14, xix. 16-23; I Kings ii. 8-9, 36-46). He is mentioned as one of David's tormentors during his flight before...
SHIMEI – 1. Biblical Data: Benjamite of Bahurim, son of Gera, "a man of the family of the house of Saul" (II Sam. xvi. 5-14, xix. 16-23; I Kings ii. 8-9, 36-46). He is mentioned as one of David's tormentors during his flight before...
SHINAR – Biblical Data: Name for Babylonia occurring eight times in the Old Testament. In Gen. x. 10 the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom is said to have been "Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." In Gen. xi. 2,...
SHISHAK (SHESHONḲ I.) – The first king of the twenty-second dynasty of Egypt. His grandfather, Sheshonḳ, descendant of a Libyan soldier, married a royal princess of Egypt. His father, Namarôti, chief of the Mashaûasha, held in addition several...
SHITTIM – Valley north of the Dead Sea on the left bank of the Jordan, in which the children of Israel, before their entry into the Promised Land, cohabited with the daughters of Moab and Midian. The Arabic name of the valley is Wady...
SHOBACH – Captain of the army of Hadarezer, King of Aram, who was defeated and slain by David at Helam (II Sam. x. 16-18). According to Soṭah viii., Shobach was as famous for his strength as Goliath, and the Ammonites, as allies of Aram,...