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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Frank Cramer, B.Sc.

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Contributions:
MELCHIOR, NATHAN GERSON – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Aug. 2, 1811; died there Jan. 30, 1872; brother of Moritz G. and Moses Melchior. Nathan graduated from the University of Copenhagen in 1835. In 1836-37 he traveled, studying ophthalmology at...
MENGS, ANTON RAFAEL – Austrian painter; born in Aussig, Bohemia, March 12, 1728; died in Rome June 29, 1779; son of Ismael Israel Mengs. Anton Mengs was early destined for an artist's career; and his father with much strictness kept him to his...
MENGS, ISMAEL ISRAEL – Danish portrait-painter; born in Copenhagen 1690; died in Dresden Dec. 26, 1765. He learned the art of miniature- and enamel-painting in Lübeck, and then traveled through Germany, Italy, and Austria, earning a scant livelihood...
MEYER, ALBERT – Danish tenor singer; born Oct. 29, 1839, at Sorö, Zealand. In 1860 he sang in the chorus of the Royal Theater, Copenhagen, where he received instruction from H. Rung. He subsequently appeared at several concerts, and had just,...
MEYER, DAVID AMSEL – Danish financier; born in Copenhagen Jan. 18, 1753; died there Aug. 30, 1813. Meyer started in business for himself at a very early age, and during the period of general prosperity in the last decade of the eighteenth century...
MEYER, EDVARD – Danish journalist and author; born Aug. 6, 1813, in Copenhagen; died there Aug. 4, 1880. He was the son of very poor parents and received little or no education during his boyhood, which he spent in a Jewish charitable...
MEYER, ERNST – Danish genre painter; born May 11, 1797, at Altona, Sleswick-Holstein; died in Rome Feb. 1, 1861. He studied at the Academy of Arts and in Lorentzen's Malerskole ("painters' school") in Copenhagen, and became, in 1814, a pupil...
MEYER, LEOPOLD – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Nov. 1, 1852. After graduating from the university of that city (M.D. 1880) he went abroad to study obstetrics, and on his return became privat-docent in gynecology at his alma mater. In 1897...
MEYER, LUDWIG BEATUS – Danish author; born in Gandersheim, Brunswick, Jan. 3, 1780; died in Copenhagen July 28, 1854. From 1802 to 1805 he lived in the latter city as a private teacher, being subsequently appointed tutor in the family of Count...
MEZA, CHRISTIAN JACOB THEOPHILUS DE – Danish physician and author; born in Copenhagen Nov. 26, 1756; died there April 6, 1844. He was a son of the physician Christian de Meza, together with whom he embraced Christianity in 1783. In the same year he graduated as M.D....
MEZA, CHRISTIAN JULIUS FREDERIK (SOLOMON) DE – Danish physician; born in Amsterdam Sept. 4, 1727; died in Copenhagen June, 1800. Meza, who was the son of a Portuguese rabbi, Abraham de Meza, studied medicine in Amsterdam, and later at the University of Utrecht (M.D. 1749)....
MILLAUD (ARTHUR PAUL DAVID), ALBERT – French journalist and playwright; born at Paris in 1836; died there Oct. 22, 1892; son of Moïse Millaud. When only eighteen years of age he published a volume of poems which met with considerable success. In 1869 he joined the...
MONIES, DAVID – Danish portrait and genre painter; born in Copenhagen June 3, 1812; died there April 29, 1894. He was admitted to the school of the Academy of Arts in 1824, and was twice (1827 and 1832) awarded silver medals for meritorious...
MORGENSTERN, KARL – German landscape-painter; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Oct. 25, 1812; died there Jan. 10, 1893. He received his education in art in the Munich Academy of Arts, and in 1834 visited the Bavarian highlands and Italy.Of his...
MUHR, JULIUS – German genre painter; born at Plesse, Silesia, June 21, 1819; died at Munich in 1865. He studied first at the Academy of Berlin, and afterward (1838) entered the Munich Academy of Arts, where Cornelius became his instructor....
NATHANSON, MENDEL LEVIN – Danish merchant, editor, and economist; born in Altona Nov. 20, 1780; died in Copenhagen Oct. 6, 1868. When only eighteen years of age Nathanson established himself in business, and in 1806 became associated with the large...
OPPENHEIM, MORITZ DANIEL – German genre- and portrait-painter; born of Orthodox parents at Hanau in 1801; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 26, 1882. He received his first lessons in painting from Westermayer, in Hanau, and entered the Munich Academy of...
PAULLI, HOLGER (OLIGER) – Danish religious fanatic; born in Copenhagen 1644; died there Aug., 1714. Of his early life little is known except that he had studied theology. In 1680 he was a slave-merchant, trading in the West Indies and on the coast of...
PICTORIAL ART – There are no ancient remains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of Bible times made use of painting for decorative or other purposes. For the references in the Bible See Painting. During the Middle Ages painting was a craft...
POLLAK, LEOPOLD – Genre- and portrait-painter; born at Lodenitz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1806; died at Rome Oct. 16, 1880. He studied under Bergler at the Academy of Prague, and later in Munich and (after 1833) in Rome. He became a naturalized citizen...
POSSART, FELIX – German landscape and genre painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1837. He at first intended to pursue a juridical career, and held for some years an office as "Amtsrichter" in his native town; but at length his love for painting...
RAHABI, DAVID – Indian calendar-maker; born in the state of Cochin about the middle of the eighteenth century. His father, Ezekiel Rahabi, was one of the wealthiest merchants there; and when he died (1771) David took over the management of his...
REE, ANTON – Danish pianist and author; born in Aarhuus, Jutland, Oct. 5, 1820; died in Copenhagen Dec. 20, 1886. He studied in Hamburg under Jacques Smitt and Karl Krebs, in Vienna under Halm, and in Paris. In 1842 he settled in Copenhagen,...
REE, BERNHARD PHILIP – Danish editor and politician; born in Aarhuus; Jutland, July 18, 1813; died there Nov. 13, 1868; son of Hartvig Philip Ree. He studied law for a while, but in 1838 became editor of the "Aalborg Stiftstidende," at the same time...
REE, HARTVIG PHILIP – Danish merchant and author; born in Fredericia, Jutland, Oct. 12, 1778; died in Copenhagen Oct. 1, 1859. On the death of his father, Ree succeeded to the management of an important business which had been established in...