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Francis L. Cohen,

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

Contributions:
'ABODAH, MUSIC OF – By its liturgical position, the "'Abodah" stands out as the central point of the services on the Day of Atonement. The confession of sin being the most essential and characteristic element in those services, a peculiar...
ADDIR HU – A hymn in the Seder, the home service for Passover eve, and so called from its initial words, but also known by its refrain of "Bimherah" (Speedily). It is one of the latest constituents of the Haggadah, in which it does not...
ADONAI, ADONAI – The pizmon (hymn) on the thirteen Attributes of God in the seliḥot (propitiatory prayers) for the fifth intermediate day of the Ten Days of Penitence, according to the northern liturgies. It is repeated in full in the "Ne'ilah"...
ADONAI BEḲOL SHOFAR – A short pizmon of four stanzas, each ending and commencing with the respective halves of Ps. xlvii. 6. It is chanted in the Sephardic liturgy before the first sounding of the shofar on the Day of Memorial, or New-year festival....
ADONAI MELEK – A refrain of frequent occurrence, particularly during the services of the days of penitence, built up of the following Scriptural phrases: "The Lord reigneth" (Ps. x. 16, Heb.); "The Lord reigneth" (Ps. xciii. 1); and "The Lord...
ADON 'OLAM – One of the few strictly metrical hymns in the Jewish liturgy, the nobility of the diction of which and the smoothness of whose versification have given it unusual importance. According to the custom of the Sephardim and in...
AḤOT ḳEṬANNAH – A pizmon (ritual poem) of eight stanzas, signed with the acrostic of Abraham Ḥazan, and sung in the Sephardic ritual before the commencement of the New-year's evening prayer, the refrain running, "May the year end with her...
AḳDAMUT – A mystical poem, written in Aramaic by Meir ben Isaac Nehorai, which is in the Ashkenazic usage interpolated after the opening verse of the lesson from the Law on the first day of the Feast of Weeks. It is traditionally...
'ALENU (V01p338001.jpg), MUSIC OF – The traditional melody to which the 'Alenu prayer is chanted, while of comparatively late origin, is of suitable breadth and dignity. It consists essentially of the opening phrase, several times repeated, with the addition of a...
'AL HA-RISHONIM – A passage in the Morning Prayer coming between the Shema' and the 'Amidah. In the Northern rituals a variant is substituted on the festivals and special Sabbaths when the piyut termed "Zulat," from the concluding word of the...
'AL ḤEṬ – The longer confession of sin (Widdui), each sentence of which begins with the formula, "Forgive us for the sin we have committed before Thee in . . ." the particular sins then being enumerated in alphabetical order. In the...
AN'IM ZEMIROT – A mystical hymn, known as the "Shir ha-Kabod" (Hymn of Glory), ascribed to R. Judah, the saint of Speyer (Landshuth, "Hegyon Leb," pp. 265 et seq.), which is honored by many congregations with a prominent place at the close of...
ANNA BEḲORENU – A Pizmon for the Eve of Atonement, according to the Sephardic ritual, taking the place occupied by "Omnam Ken" and "Ki Hinneh Ka-ḥomer" in the ritual of the Ashkenazim. It is a prayerful hymn by David Ibn Bekodah (twelfth...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ASHAMNU – The old shorter form of the confession of sin ("Widdui"), mentioned in the Talmud and in the "Didache" (first century C. E.), in which each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is successively utilized as the initial of an...
ASHIRAH – ASHIRAH (B) The first word of the Song of Moses (Ex. xv.), known as "Shirat ha-Yam" (The Song at the Sea), read in the synagogues in the lesson of the seventh day of the Passover (the anniversary of the crossing of the Red Sea),...
ASHRE – The initial word of the verses Ps. lxxxiv. 5 [A. V. 4] and cxliv. 15, which verses are always prefixed to Ps. cxlv. in its recital in the synagogal service. In the northern liturgies these opening verses are associated with a...
ASHRE HA-'AM – Ps. lxxxix. 16, prefixed to "Ashre" on the Day of Memorial, or New-Year, immediately after the sounding of the Shofar. It is then associated in Ashkenazic congregations with a beautiful and typical melody, ofmedieval origin, in...
ATTAH HORE'TA – The first of a series of versicles, seventeen in number, chanted on the Rejoicing of the Law in the Northern ritual, before the scrolls are taken from the Ark for the "haḳḳafot" or processional circuits. The chant resembles a...
AZ SHESH MEOT – A poem of three stanzas by R. Elias Priscus, introduced in the northern liturgy at the conclusion of the piyyuṭim in the Additional Service on the Feast of Weeks. A paraphrase is given below of the two melodies associated with...
BAAL KORÉ – Term applied to the person who reads the weekly portion from the Pentateuch—usually the ḥazan, though not necessarily so (see Cantillation; Ḥazzan; Music, Synagogal; compare Dembitz, "Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home," pp....
BA'AL TOḲEA' – Term applied to the person who blows the Shofar.A. F. L. C.
BEMOẒA'E MENUḤAH – The "pizmon" of the "seliḥot" on the first Sunday in the octave preceding the New-Year, and therefore honored with a special melody. The first verse of the hymn is also chanted in some German congregations (Minhag Ashkenaz) in...
BERAḤ DODI – Three piyyuṭim forming the Ge'ullah in the morning service of the first two days of Passover, and of Saturday between the first and the last days of this feast ( ). Each of these piyyuṭim begins with the initial phrase of Cant....
BLESSING, PRIESTLY – One of the most impressive and characteristic features of the service both in the Temple of Jerusalem and in the synagogue, having its origin in the blessing pronounced by the Aaronites in accordance with the command and the...