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Francis L. Cohen,

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

Contributions:
MIZMOR SHIR LE-YOM HA-SHABBAT – The superscription to Ps. xcii., chanted with Ps. xciii. before the commencement of evening service on Sabbaths (including festivals falling on that day) in the "Pesuḳe de-Zimrah" of the early part of morning service on Sabbaths...
MUSIC, SYNAGOGAL – Temple Origins. Coin of Second Revolt Bearing Two Trumpets.(After Madden, "History of Jewish Coinage.")It has been shown in the article Cantillation (Jew. Encyc. iii. 537b) that the desire to read the Scriptures in the manner...
NATHAN, ISAAC – English musician and composer; born at Canterbury, England, in 1792; died at Sydney, N. S. W., Jan. 15, 1864. He was intended for the ministry and studied under Professor Lyon at Cambridge, but, owing to his love of music, he...
NE'ILAH – The last of the five services held on the Day of Atonement. The earliest mention of it is in the Mishnah (Ta'an. 26a), where it is said: "On three occasions the priests pronounce the benediction four times in the day, namely, at...
NIGGUN – A Neo-Hebraic noun formed from the "pi'el" of the verb = "to play strings," "make music"; hence meaning generally "tune," "melody." In the rubrics of the Maḥzor of the northern uses "be-niggun N." heads a piyyuṭ with the...
ODEKA – Initial word of Ps. cxviii. 21 (See Hallel), marking the point where the antiphony of alternate verses between two choirs comes to a conclusion (comp. Grätz, "Kritischer Commentar zu den Psalmen," pp. 74, 608, Breslau, 1882;...
OMNAM KEN – A penitential hymn in the ritual for the eve of Atonement, according to the Polish rite. The author has been identified by Joseph Jacobs with R. Yom-Ṭob of Joigny, the rabbi and leader of the Jews who so heroically faced their...
OREN – A word formed by the addition of the German infinitive suffix to the Latin "ora" (="pray"). which was very familiar to every one in the Middle Ages, as it still is in Catholic countries, from its repeated use in the frequent...
PIZMON – Hymn with a refrain; usually the chief poem in the scheme of seliḥot sung or recited by the cantor and congregation in alternation. Of the many etymological derivations suggested for the word, "psalm" (Greek, Ψαλμός) seems the...
RAḤEM NA 'ALAW – A dirge of the Sephardim, chanted by those taking part in the sevenfold processional circuit around the bier before interment (see Haḳḳafot), as depicted in the print by Picart, 1723, reproduced in Jew. Encyc. iii. 433 (see also...
REPRESENTATIVE THEMES – Anticipating in some measure the modern use of the leitmotif, the cantors of the synagogues, as soon as the traditional material of their chants was fixed (by the beginning of the sixteenth century), introduced and extended the...
RESPONSES – The congregational answers to the utterances of the officiant. These were originally what the responses to the benedictions of those private individuals who are called to the reading of the Law still remain—mere loud acclaims....
SAGERIN – Leader of the women in public prayer. The separation of the sexes at Jewish worship was insisted on even in the days of the Temple (Suk. 51b); but women were by tradition recognized as entitled to appoint a prayer-leader from...
SALAMAN, CHARLES KENSINGTON – English pianist, composer, and controversialist; born in London March 3, 1814; died there June 23, 1901. His musical talent became apparent at a very early age, when he studied under Neate (a pupil of Beethoven), Crotch, and...
SELIḤAH – Originally for the Day of Atonement. Penitential prayers; perhaps the oldest portion of the synagogal compositions known under the term of Piyyuṭim. The word "seliḥah" (from "salaḥ" = "he forgave") is particularly used in the...
SHAḤAR ABAḲḲSHKA – Morning hymn written about 1050 by Solomon ibn Gabirol (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 188), whose name appears in an acrostic. It is quoted in the prayer-book of the Sephardim, and particularly among the "supplications" following...
SHE'EH NE'ESAR – The pizmon or responsory hymn in the Seliḥot of the fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz, the "fast of the fourth month" in Zech. viii. 19. It is signed with the acrostic Shelomoh (Ibn Gabirol; comp. Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p....
SHEMA' ḲOLI – Opening hymn of the services on the eve of Atonement in the Sephardic ritual, preceding Kol Nidre. It consists of twenty-nine distichs based on the penitential formula of the Mishnah (Ta'an. ii. 1), "May He who answered the...
SHIRAH ḤADASHAH – SHIRAH ḤADASHAH A passage which illustrates the influence of the Midrash on the development of synagogal music. The Biblical prescription of circumcision as a qualification for partaking of the paschal lamb (Ex. xii. 43, 48) led...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHOFAR – Biblical Data: The ancient ritual horn of Israel, representing, next to the 'Ugab or reeds, the oldest surviving form of wind-instrument. As a rule "shofar" is incorrectly translated "trumpet" or "cornet"; its etymology shows it...
SHOFEṬ KOL HA-AREẒ – Important Pizmon of six verses, each ending with a phrase from Num. xxviii. 23. Being signed with the acrostic "Shelomoh," it is often ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol; but by Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 312) it is attributed to...
SHOMRON ḲOL TITTEN – Dramatic elegy by Solomon ibn Gabirol, sung at the conclusion of the order of Ḳinot according to the Polish ritual, at both the evening and morning services of the Fast of Ab, and appended as a private meditation to the order of...
TROP – Judæo-German term for tropes, the short musical cadences, called "distinctions" in theChurch plain-song, which are the traditional vocal interpretation of the accents in the Cantillation of the Hebrew Scriptures. See also...
U-BA LE-ẒIYYON – Opening words of the closing prayer of the daily morning service, before which one should not leave the synagogue (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 132). The prayer consists of a series of texts, in which are included the Ḳedushshah...