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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
AACH – A small town in the circle of Constance, Baden, Germany, at one time belonging to the landgraviate of Nellenburg. The first mention of Jews in Aach is found in a document of the year 1518, in which the Jews of Geisingen are...
AARON BEN JOSEPH OF BUDA (Ofen) – A Judæo-German poet of the seventeenth century, who was captured in the city of Ofen, the capital of Hungary, on September 2, 1686, when the imperial troops, under the command of Duke Charles of Lorraine, finally wrested it from...
AARON BEN-ZION IBN ALAMANI – Dayyan, or judge, and prominent Jew of Alexandria in the twelfth century. His family name probably means al-Umani, or "the man of Oman" (Judah ha-Levi, "Diwan," ed. Harkavy, p. 180; Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 486)....
ABARBANEL LIBRARY IN JERUSALEM – A collection of books intended for a national Jewish library; founded by Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz, one of the Zionist leaders in Russia, who devoted almost the whole of his income to the collection of Hebrew books. In 1900 the...
ABBA NASIA, JOSEPH – Chief justice in Majorca, 1405; died, 1439.Bibliography: Zunz, Zur Gesch. und Literatur, p. 517.G.
ABBAS, SAMUEL ABU NAṢR IBN – A son of Judah ibn Abbas of Fez; lived in the twelfth century. Joseph Sambari and the "Yuḥasin" call him Samuel ben Azariah ("Rev. Ét. Juives," iv. 188, v. 52), which Steinschneider believes to be a mistake originating in his...
ABEL – Biblical Data: The younger brother of Cain and the second son of Adam and Eve. He was the first shepherd, while Cain was a tiller of the soil. The writer of Gen. iv. tells us that when the brothers came as a matter of course to...
ABI ZIMRA – A family which can be traced from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, of which the following were the more important: Judah ben Ephraim, 1245-1330; Moses ben Judah; his son, Ephraim ben Moses, 1470; Abraham ben Meir, 1492;...
ABIGDOR – A prænomen, as well as a family name, which first appeared in the Middle Ages and which is still in use. In Russia it is pronounced "Vigder." It is supposed to be the Biblical ("Father of Gedor"; I Chron. iv. 18); though some...
ABIGDOR BEN MOSES – Lived in the sixteenth century in Cracow. He translated certain portions of the prayer-book into German.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 4171; Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 13.G.
ABRAHAM – Birth and Wanderings. —Biblical Data: According to the Bible, Abraham (or Abram) was the father of the Hebrews. The Biblical account of the life of Abram is found in Gen. xi. 26 to xxv. 10. According to this narrative, he was...
ABRAHAM OF AVILA – A pseudo-Messiah and wonder-worker, who lived at the end of the thirteenth century. There seems to be some doubt concerning the name of this man, though the facts are well attested by Solomon ben Adret and the apostate Abner of...
ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-LEVỊ – A Spanish Talmudist and author; born at Barcelona in the early part of the fourteenth century; died at Narbonne in October, 1393. He was a religious poet and leader of the Jewish community in Gerona (Catalonia), and is praised...
ABRAHAM BEN MATTATHIAS – Compiler of the ("Kuh-Buch"), a collection of animal fables in Judæo-German prose and verse, published at Verona in 1555.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 4269; Fürst, Bibl. Jud. i. 9.G.
ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL BEN ALDEMAGH – Hebrew poet of the thirteenth century, some of whose verses are found in Hebrew translations of Maimonides' Arabic commentary on the Mishnah.Bibliography: Catalogue des Manuscrits Hébreux et Samaritains de la Bibliotheque...
ABRAHAM HA-SEPHARDI – Hebrew poet and ritualist. He was rabbi at Arta in 1521. Though not a Karaite, he has been credited with the authorship of the seven poems of four lines each which precede the different sections of the Nineteenth Psalm, printed...
ABRAHAM SOLOMON OF SAINT MAXIMIN – Physician, who flourished in the fifteenth century, being in high favor with René of Anjou, count of Provence. Cæsar of Nostradamus, himself of Jewish origin, in "L'Histoire et Chronologie de Provence," p. 618 (Lyons, 1624),...
ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF TORRUTIEL – Historian; lived at the end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of the sixteenth. When only nine or ten years old, he was compelled to leave Spain (1492) in the company of those whom Ferdinand and Isabella had driven...
ABRAHAM BEN YOM-ṬOB OF JERUSALEM – Astronomer and rabbi of Constantinople; born about 1480. He was a pupil of Elijah Mizraḥi, and is quoted by Joseph Caro as a high authority. In 1556, at the instance of Joseph Nasi, he joined the rabbis of Constantinople who...
ABU ISḤAḲ IBN AL-MUHAJIR – Spanish-Arabic vizier of the middle of the twelfth century mentioned in the "Diwan" (collection of poems) of Moses ibn Ezra, with the title "vezir." This is the only fact known about him, but the importance of the position...
ABUDARHAM – A family name borne by Spanish Jews, for the first time by David Abudarham, who was a tax-collector and elder of the congregation of the Jews of Tudela during the reign of Sancho the Great, king of Castile and Leon (1258-95)....
ABUDIENTE – Name of a Marano family living at Lisbon. Gideon Abudiente, about the end of the sixteenth century, is the earliest bearer of this name of whom we have cognizance. His son, together with some other members of the family,...
ABUDIENTE – Name of a Marano family living at Lisbon. Gideon Abudiente, about the end of the sixteenth century, is the earliest bearer of this name of whom we have cognizance. His son, together with some other members of the family,...
ABULAFIA – Name of a widely scattered Jewish family of Spanish origin, one of whose branches, for the sake of clearer designation, bore the surname of Ha-Levi. Members of this family were found in various cities of the Orient and in Africa...
ACME – Jewish slave of Livia, wife of the Emperor Augustus. During the family troubles which clouded the last nine years of Herod's life, she came under the influence of his son Antipater, while he lived at Rome. Induced by large...