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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BENEDICT VIII. – Pope from 1012 to 1024. A great persecution of the Jews took place during his pontificate. A terrible earthquake and hurricane visited the city of Rome on Good Friday, 1021, and the following day, in which many persons perished....
BENEDICT XII. (JACQUES DE NOVELLÈS) – A monk of the Cistercian order; elected pope Dec. 30, 1334; died April 25, 1342. Although he displayed the greatest zeal for the extermination of the Albigenses and other heretics, he cherished kindly feelings toward the Jews...
BENEDICT XIII. (PEDRO DE LUNA) – Antipope; born at Aragon about 1334; elected Sept. 28, 1394; died at Peñiscola June 1 (according to some, Nov. 29), 1424. This "unfrocked and spurious pope," as he was termed by the Council of Constance which deposed him (1415),...
BENEDICT XIV. (PROSPERO LAMBERTINI) – Two hundred and fifty-fourth pope; born at Bologna in 1675; elected pope Aug. 17, 1740; died May 3, 1758. This pope, who graciously accepted a dedication from Voltaire and was full of amenity toward all heretics, thought it his...
BENEDICTUS, COENRAAD – Mohel" and surgeon at Surinam, Dutch Guiana, about 1830. Nothing is known of his life nor of his literary activity other than the bare fact that he published at Paramaribo in 1830 (?) a tract describing the operation of...
BENFELDEN – Town in Alsace, 17 miles from Strasburg. It was here, in the year 1348, when Europe was devastated by the Black Death (the spread of which was ascribed to the Jews), that a council was held of the representatives of the towns in...
BENJACOB, ISAAC B. JACOB – Russian bibliographer, author, and publisher; born in Ramgola, near Wilna, Jan. 10, 1801; died in Wilna July 2, 1863. His parents moved to Wilna when he was still a child, and there he received instruction in Hebrew grammar and...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN B. ISAAC OF CARCASSONNE – This scholar is known only by his translation from Latin into Hebrew, under the title of "'Ezer Eloah" (Divine Help), of the work of Jean de Bourgogne, of the province of Liége, on the corruption of the air by the plague. This...
BENJAMIN BEN MOSES – Italian scholar; lived at Rome at the beginning of the fifteenth century. He took an active part in the administration of the Jewish community of Rome, and was one of the delegates to the assembly of the Italian Jewish...
BENJAMIN OF TIBERIAS – A rich Jew who, when the emperor Heraclius in 628 went to Jerusalem during the Persian war, was accused of hostility toward the Christians. This accusation probably implied that he sided with the Persians. Notwithstanding this...
BENJAMIN OF TUDELA – A celebrated traveler of the twelfth century. Beyond his journey, no facts of his life are known. In the preface to his itinerary, entitled "Massa'ot shel Rabbi Binyamin" (Travels of Rabbi Benjamin), the information is furnished...
BENOLIEL, DON JUDAH – Moroccan and Austrian consul at Gibraltar; president of the Jewish community there, and of the chamber of commerce; died in 1839. When Sardinia sent a fleet against Morocco, Benoliel was enabled, in his consular capacity, to...
BENVENISTE – The name of an old, rich, and scholarly family of Narbonne, the numerous branches of which were found all over Spain and the Provence, as well as at various places in the Orient. It is still borne by certain families in...
BENVENISTE – The name of an old, rich, and scholarly family of Narbonne, the numerous branches of which were found all over Spain and the Provence, as well as at various places in the Orient. It is still borne by certain families in...
BENVENISTE – The name of an old, rich, and scholarly family of Narbonne, the numerous branches of which were found all over Spain and the Provence, as well as at various places in the Orient. It is still borne by certain families in...
BENVENISTE BEN ḤIYYAH BEN ALDAYYAN – Physician and religious poet of the thirteenth century. Zunz mentions three metrical "baḳḳashahs" (supplications) written by him. At Benveniste's request, Jacob ben Eleazar under-took the translation of "Kalilah wa-Dimnah" from...
BENVENISTE BEN JACOB – One of the officers of the society Biḳḳur Ḥolim of the Spanish synagogue in Venice toward the end of the seventeenth century. He was of Spanish descent, and is mentioned together with Raphael ben Solomon Silva and Isaac ben...
BENVENISTE B. LABI – A Jewish Mæcenas; son of "Prince" Solomon ibn Labi de la Caballeria; lived at Saragossa, later at Alcañiz, where he died Nov. 30, 1411. He was wealthy, learned, and greatly respected, and often took the part of his...
BENVENISTE DE PORTA – Bailie ("bayle") of Barcelona, Spain, and brother of Naḥmanides (whose secular name was Bon Astruc de Porta; see Grätz, "Gesch. der Juden," vii. 38; "Jewish Quarterly Review," viii. 492, 710). Benveniste was an important...
BEOR – 1. Father of Bela, king of Edon (Gen. xxxvi. 32; I Chron. i. 43). 2. Father of Balaam (Num. xxii. 5; xxiv. 3, 15; xxxi. 8; Deut. xxiii. 4; Josh. xiii. 22; Micah vi. 5). II Peter ii. 15 gives the name as "Bosor."G. G. B....
BERA – King of Sodom; one of the five kings constituting the confederacy under Amraphel (Gen. xiv. 2). Ber. Rabbah 42 playfully interprets the name as though contracted from "ben ra'" (evil son).G. G. B. L.