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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BERACHAH – 1. A Benjamite who came to David and joined his forces at Ziklag (I Chron. xii. 3). 2. A valley where Jehoshaphat and his men assembled after having despoiled the Ammonites and Moabites (II Chron. xx. 26). It is identical with...
BERECHIAH BEN NATRONAIKRESPIA HA-NAḲDAN – Fabulist, exegete, ethical writer, grammarian, and translator; probably identical with Benedictus le Puncteur, an English Jewmentioned as contributing at Oxford to a donum to Richard I., in 1194. Much discussion has taken place...
BERECHIAH DE NICOLE – English Tosafist; died after 1256. He was of the well-known Hagin family, and son of Rabbi Moses ben Yom-Ṭob of London. He was the rab or chief rabbi of Lincoln (the Norman-French name of which was "Nicole"), and probably lived...
BERENGER OF NARBONNE – Viscount of Narbonne in the eleventh century. In the midst of the important wars of that century waged for the assertion of their temporal power, the popes still found time to protect the Jews. Alexander II. was their...
BERENICE – City of the Cyrenaic Pentapolis, at the eastern extremity of the great Syrtis, near the river Lathon. The settlement of the Jews in Berenice, as in the other towns of the Greek colony "Cyrenaica," dates from Ptolemy I. Although...
BERENICE – Daughter of Costobar and Salome, sister of Herod I. Her marriage with her cousin Aristobulus was unhappy. The husband, being proud of his Maccabean descent by his mother, Mariamne, taunted his wife with her low birth. Berenice...
BERENICE – Her Marriages. Daughter of Herod Agrippa I. and of Cypros, the daughter of Phasael; born in 28. She was first married to Marcus, son of the alabarch Alexander of Alexandria. Her husband dying within a short time, her father...
BERGEL, JOSEPH – Judæo-German writer, probably of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Ein Schön Göttlich Lied," a religious poem. It seems to have been printed at Prague in the seventeenth century as an addition to the poem "Jüdischer...
BERIAH – 1. A son of Asher, representing, however, not an individual, but a clan (Gen. xlvi. 17; Num. xxvi. 44, 46). A member of the clan was called a Beriite (Num. xxvi. 44). The name is also found in the genealogical list, I Chron....
BERḲAMANI – Physician and author; lived probably in the first half of the thirteenth century, and wrote for an emir (Manṣur?) a treatise on hygiene in ten chapters, called in the preface: . There is a copy of this medical work in manuscript...
BERMANN, ISSACHAR HA-LEVI – Philanthropist; born at Halberstadt Nisan 24, 1661; died there Tammuz 24, 1730; son of Judah Lehmann. At an early age he displayed great commercial enterprise. He afterward went to Hanover, and there became associated with the...
BERN – Capital of the Swiss Confederation. Jews resided within its territory as early as the sixth century, but the first documentary evidence of Jewish inhabitants in Bern is for the year 1259. Though under the protection of the city,...
BERNAL, ABRAHAM NUÑEZ – Spanish martyr; burned at the stake by the Inquisition of Cordova May 3, 1655. His martyrdom is celebrated in a work published by Jacob Bernal (Amsterdam, 1655), entitled "Elogios que Zelozos Dedicaron á la Felice Memoria de...
BERNAL, ISAAC (MARCUS) DE ALMEYDA – Spanish martyr; born in Montilla 1633; burned at the stake in St. Iago de Compostella(Galicia, Spain), in the month of March, 1655, at the age of twenty-two. He was a nephew of Abraham Nuñez Bernal. When only seventeen (1650) he...
BERNAL, MAESTRO – A Marano, ship-physician on the first voyage of Columbus to America. He had lived in Tortosa and had undergone public penance in October, 1490, as an adherent of Judaism. Columbus, by his arrogant conduct, aroused the enmity of...
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX – Church father; born 1091, near Dijon, France; died at Clairvaux Aug. 20, 1153. He was originally a monk of the Cistercian order at Citeaux; but, on being appointed abbot of Clairvaux, he founded a branch order known by his name,...
BERNARD OF GORDON – Christian physician; born probably at Gordon in Guienne, department of Lot, France; professor of medicine at Montpellier about the year 1300. His "Lilium Medicinæ" was much read by Jews, and several Hebrew translations of it are...
BERNARDINUS OF FELTRE – His Preaching. Franciscan friar; born at Feltre, Italy, in 1439; died Sept. 28, 1494. He was one of the bitterest enemies the Jews ever had, and openly advocated their utter extermination. He traveled throughout Italy preaching...
BERTHOLD OF REGENSBURG – Monk and itinerant preacher; born about 1220; died in Regensburg (Ratisbon) Dec. 14, 1272. This most celebrated popular preacher of the Middle Ages, known to the people as "Rusticanus," traveled through Bavaria, the Rhine...
BESALU – City in Catalonia, Spain. Its small Jewish community had the same privileges as that of the neighboring Gerona, and was taxed together with it. A number of documents dealing with taxes of the Jews of this place are preserved in...
BETH-SHE'ARIM – According to rabbinic accounts, the Sanhedrin was destined to pass through ten exiles during the period 30-170, and to be compelled to wander from place to place. One of its stations was to be the city of Beth-she'arim, in which...
BETHAR – City in Palestine, scene of the war of Bar Kokba (132-135), and mentioned as such in Mishnah Ta'anit iv. 6; Yer. Ta'anit 69a; Babli Ta'anit 26b, 29a; Lam. R. to chaps. ii. 2 and iv. 8; Yer. Ber. 3d; Tosef., Yeb. xiv. 8; Bab....
BETHAR – City in Palestine, scene of the war of Bar Kokba (132-135), and mentioned as such in Mishnah Ta'anit iv. 6; Yer. Ta'anit 69a; Babli Ta'anit 26b, 29a; Lam. R. to chaps. ii. 2 and iv. 8; Yer. Ber. 3d; Tosef., Yeb. xiv. 8; Bab....
BETHEL – An Italian-Jewish family, several members of which are known as liturgical poets and copyists. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome after the destruction of...
BETURIA, PAULINA – Roman proselyte to Judaism (about the year 50), known under the name "Sarah," who, according to her Latin epitaph, was eighty-six years and six months old at the time of her death. For sixteen years she was a Jewess, a mother of...