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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BEUTHEN – City of Prussian Silesia. No precise information is forthcoming as to when Jews first settled in the city. The mention of Beuthen in the Mainzer Memorbuch (year 1231) is uncertain; but it is known that Jews lived there as early...
BÉZIERS – Earliest Mention. Town of France in the department of Hérault. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Béziers is lost in antiquity. Two letters of Sidonius Apolonarius and the canons of the council held at Agde in 506...
BIBEL'SCHE ORIENT, DER – A magazine of which only two numbers appeared (Munich, 1821), these being supposed to be edited by Isaac Bernays. Its object, as stated in the first announcement, April 24 (the second bears date of Aug. 12, 1812 [1821]), was "to...
BIBLE EDITIONS – The advantages of the newly discovered art of printing were quickly recognized by the Jews. While for the synagogue service written scrolls only were (and are still) used, the printing-press was very soon called into service to...
BIBLE TRANSLATIONS – The Targums. Jewish translations of the Old Testament were made from time to time by Jews, in order to satisfy the needs, both in public service and in private life, of those that had gradually lost the knowledge of the ancient...
BIBLICAL ETHNOLOGY – The view of race-relationship expressed in the Bible. It is customary to designate the tenth chapter of Genesis as the oldest ethnological division of mankind. Earlier than this, however, the Egyptians, as known from their...
BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS – National library of France, founded in 1354. The Hebrew manuscripts in this library have always stood at the head of the Oriental collections, their number now amounting to 1,390. In importance and number of volumes, this...
BIKKURE HA-'ITTIM – An annual edited and published in Vienna, 1820-31, by S. J. Cohen. It first appeared as a supplement to the Hebrew calendar , and was intended for young people only. In 1822 it ceased to be a mere supplement, and became an...
BIKKURIM – A Hebrew annual that appeared in Vienna for two years (1864, 1865), Naphtali Keller being its editor and publisher. The greatest Hebrew scholars of the age, as J. H. Weiss, Jellinek, Reifmann, Lewisohn, Gottlober, Meyer...
BILHAH – A locality in southern Judea (I Chron. iv. 29), evidently the same as "Balah" ( , Josh. xix. 3) and "Ba'alah" ( , Josh. xv. 29).G. W. N.
BILSHAN – Biblical Data: One of the important men who came to Jerusalem from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii 2; Neh. vii. 7). In I Esd. v. 8 he is called "Beelsarus," which points to the form Belshar (= "Belshar-uṣṣur"=O Bel, protect the...
BING, SOLOMON – German physician; son of Dr. Abraham Bing of Bingen, and son-in-law of the well-known physician and scholar Joseph Solomon del Medigo; born about the year 1615. In his boyhood he attended the colleges of the Jesuits in Mayence...
BISCHOFSHEIM-ON-THE-TAUBER – City in the district of Mosbach, Baden. At Landa and the neighboring Tauber-Bischofsheim seven prominent Jews were tortured and burned, Jan. 1 and 2, 1235, on the accusation of having murdered a Christian. Nearly the whole...
BITHYNIA – A province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus, and the Euxine. A Jewish colony existed there as early as the first century of the common era. In his address to Caius, the Judean...
BIURISTS – Translation of the Pentateuch. A class of exegetes of the school of Mendelssohn. Not content with giving a simple meaning, most of the Biblical commentators immediately preceding Mendelssohn had interpreted the Biblical passages...
BLACK DEATH – Myth of Well-Poisoning. A violent pestilence which ravaged Europe between March, 1348, and the spring of 1351, and is said to have carried off nearly half the population. It was brought by sailors to Genoa from south Russia,...
BLAU, LUDWIG – Hungarian scholar and publicist; born April 29, 1861, at Putnok, Hungary; educated at three different yeshibot, among them that of Presburg, and at the Landesrabbinerschule in Budapest (1880-88); studied philosophy and...
BLEEDING – In accordance with the pathology of its epoch, the Talmud declares, "At the head of the list of human ailments stands plethora (B. B. 58b). The Rabbis say elsewhere (Bek. 44b), "Where there is an abundance of blood, there is...
BLIND, THE, IN LAW AND LITERATURE – The ancient nations regarded blindness as the lowest degradation that could be inflicted upon man; hence gouging out the eyes of an enemy was a form of national retaliation. The Philistines bored out the eyes of Samson, and the...
BLITZ, JEKUTHIEL BEN ISAAC – Corrector of the press in the Hebrew printing-office of Uri Phoebus at Amsterdam; lived there in the second half of the seventeenth century. He translated the Bible into Judæo-German (Amsterdam, 1679). The translation, which was...
BLOGG – German author; native of Neuwägen in Hanover; died Feb. 11, 1858. He was a teacher of the Hebrew language, and founded Telgener's printing-press at Hanover in 1827. At the time of his death he was nearly eighty years old, and...
BLOIS – Capital of the department of Loir-et-Cher, France. Although of small importance itself, Blois occupies a prominent place in Jewish history through the somber drama of which it was, in 1171, the theater.On the testimony of a...
BLOOD ACCUSATION – A term now usually understood to denote the accusation that the Jews—if not all of them, at all events certain Jewish sects—require and employ Christian blood for purposes which stand in close relation to the ritual, and that,...
BLOOD ACCUSATION – A term now usually understood to denote the accusation that the Jews—if not all of them, at all events certain Jewish sects—require and employ Christian blood for purposes which stand in close relation to the ritual, and that,...
BLOOD-MONEY – Ransom paid by a murderer to the avenging kinsmen of a murdered man, in satisfaction for the crime. Among the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic peoples blood-money or "wergeld" was commonly paid, and a regular scale of prices...