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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BONIRAC, SOLOMON – Spanish translator; lived at Barcelona in the middle of the fourteenth century. He translated from the Arabic into Hebrew Galen's medical work on the crisis, under the title, "Sefer Buḥran" (Book on Vapors). The translator...
BONN – City in Rhenish Prussia. It had a Jewish community at an early date. Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (b. 1133), as a boy of thirteen, was among the Jews who, in September, 1146, sought refuge from the Crusaders in the fortress...
BONSENIOR, IBN YAḤYA – Chess expert. No details of his life can be obtained. The name is probably Provençal, and he lived certainly not later than the fifteenth century. Bonsenior was the author of an interesting work on chess, entitled "Melizat Seḥoḳ...
BONSENYOR, ASTRUC – From 1259, if not earlier, dragoman and Arabic secretary to Jaime I. of Aragon; died 1280. He was a native of Barcelona. He accompanied the king on his campaigns, acting as interpreter, and in that capacity rendered valuable...
BONSENYOR, ASTRUC – Grandson of Astruc Bonsenyor, the dragoman of Jaime I. of Aragon; father of Judah Bonsenyor. He was a physician in Barcelona, and in the year 1334 was accorded the privileges which had been enjoyed by his grandfather.G. M....
BONSENYOR, ISAAC – Son or grandson of Judah Bonsenyor; lived in Barcelona; in 1391 became a Christian, and took the name Ferrario Gracia de Gualbis.G. M. K.
BONSENYOR, JUDAH (Jaffuda) – Notary-general of Aragon, and translator from the Arabic; son of the elder Astruc, and, like his father, interpreter, first to Alfonso III. and then to Jaime II.; died about 1334. In 1287 he accompanied Alfonso III. on his war...
BORDEAUX – In medieval times capital of Guienne; to-day, of the department of La Gironde, France. It derives its name from Bourdelois, the district in which it is situated.According to a legend, the Jews settled at Bordeaux shortly after...
BOSKOWITZ – Town in Moravia, about 21 miles to the north of Brünn. It has one of the oldest and most important communities in the province, though in numbers it had dwindled to 1,967 Jewish inhabitants in 1880. Even in early times there was...
BOSKOWITZ, ḤAYYIM BEN JACOB – Palestinian author; lived about the middle of the eighteenth century. He wrote the "Toẓe'ot Ḥayyim"(Life's Issues), a commentary on the Pentateuch (Amsterdam, 1764, printed with the text), which deals chiefly with the moral...
BOSTANAI – First exilarch under Arabian rule; flourished about the middle of the seventh century. The name is Aramaized from the Persian "bustan" or "bostan" (as proper name see Justi, "Iranisches Namenbuch," p. 74). Almost the only...
BOURGES – Capital of the department of Cher, France. From the beginning of the Middle Ages Jews dwelt in Bourges. It is recorded that in 568, and again in 624, attempts were made to convert them to Christianity ("Gallia Christiana," ii....
BOZECCHI – Prominent Italian family, the members of which when settling at Rome called themselves after their native place, Buzecchio, in the province Forli. Traces of the family may be found as far back as the thirteenth century. A...
BRAGANÇA – City of Portugal, in the province of Tras-os-Montes. In 1250 nineteen of the Jews living there were accused of usury. They increased to such an extent that a few years before their expulsion they paid 30,000 reis in taxes. Many...
BRANDENBURG – Province of Prussia. In documents of the thirteenth century Jews are mentioned as living in the mark of Brandenburg and carrying on commerce there. In Belitz they were accused of having desecrated the host in 1243; and a similar...
BRAUNSCHWEIG (BRUNSCHWIG), ABRAHAM B. ELIEZER – Reviser of the rabbinical Bible published by the printer König of Basel in 1619; and assistant to Johannes Buxtorf, both the father and the son. At the request of Buxtorf, senior, Braunschweig was permitted to settle at Basel....
BRAY-SUR-SEINE – Small town situated between Provins and Montereau, in the department of Seine-et-Marne; belonged formerly to Champagne. In the twelfth century it had an important Jewish community, including such rabbis as Jacob the Tosafist,...
BRESCH – Translator of the Pentateuch into Judæo-German; lived in Germany in the sixteenth century, He is known only from De Rossi (s.v. "Guida Figlio di Mose Naftali Bres"; Hamberger, s.v. "Bress"), who credits him with the translation...
BRESCIA – City and province of Lombardy, Italy. The Jews first settled there during Roman times. A commemorative stone, dating from the fifth century, probably comes from a synagogue. In the Middle Ages definite information concerning the...
BRINDISI – Seaport on the coast of Calabria, Italy, whence the ancient Romans embarked for the East. Jews undoubtedly settled there at a very early period. In the Talmud ('Er. iv. 1) it is recounted that four illustrious Mishnaic doctors...
BRITTANY – Ancient province of France corresponding to the present departments of Finistère, Côtes-du-Nord, Morbihan, Ile et Vilaine, and Loire-Inférieure. The name occurs in Hebrew writings under various forms, such as . Little...
BRIVIESCA – The ancient Virovesca; city in Old Castile, not far from Burgos. A Jewish community dwelt there, which in 1290 was taxed 11,700 maravedis. At the request of his sister, the Infanta Doña Berenguella, Don Ferdinand III. of Castile...
BROGLIE, VICTOR-CLAUDE, PRINCE DE – French statesman; opponent of Jewish emancipation; born at Paris, 1757; beheaded in 1794 for intriguing against the French Revolution. He wrote "Opinion sur l'Admission des Juifs à l'Etat Civil" (Paris, 1791), in which he argues...
BRUSSELS – Capital of Belgium. There are no records as to the date when Jews first settled in Brussels; but as many of them were scattered over the province of Brabant at the time of the Romans, it may be assumed that they established...
BUENA ESPÉRANZA, LA – Title of a Jewish weekly, published in Judæo-Spanish and in rabbinic characters at Smyrna since 1874. It first appeared under the name "La Esperanza." Aaron de Joseph Ḥazan has been its editor from the beginning.G. M....