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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
BURGDORF – Town in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. It contained a few Jewish inhabitants in the fourteenth century. In 1347 Simon, a Jew living there, loaned to the cathedral provost Ulrich forty pounds of pennies. On Feb. 16, 1349, the...
BURGOS – City of Old Castile, having a long-established, large, wealthy, and cultured Jewish community up to the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. It is reported that the Jews of Burgos, who as early as 1070 had made...
BURMANIA, BARTHOLD DOWE – Dutch statesman and ambassador to the court of Vienna; lived in the eighteenth century. He was a man of broad humanitarian sympathies and an especially stanch friend of the Jews. When, on Dec. 18, 1744, Maria Theresa ordered the...
BYZANTINE EXPIRE – Name given to the eastern division of the Roman empire. On May 11, 330, Constantinople became the capital of the Roman empire, and the Greek Orient thereafter developed independently. In these countries of the Eastern empire,...
CABALLERIA, DE LA – Marano family of Aragon, Spain, widely ramified, and influential through its wealth and scholarship, especially in Saragossa. The family descended from D. Solomon ibn Labi de la Caballeria, who had nine sons. The eldest, Bonafos...
CABALLERIA, BONAFOS – Anti-Jewish writer of the fifteenth century; son of Solomon ibn Labi de la Caballeria of Saragossa; assumed the name of "Micer Pedro" on becoming a convert to Christianity. From early youth he devoted himself to the study of the...
CABRET – Spanish translator; lived in Spain toward the end of the fourteenth century. The surname "Cabret" or "Cabrit," borne by several persons, is derived, according to Gross ("Gallia Judaica," p. 474), from a Spanish locality, Cabreta...
CADENET – Small village in the department of Vaucluse, France. Like all places situated along the river Durance, Cadenet had a Jewish community in the Middle Ages. A document of the year 1283 states that this community, together with...
CÆCILIUS OF CALACTE – Rhetorician, critic, and historian; flourished in the first century B.C. at Calacte, a town on the northern coast of Sicily. He was the first Jew noted for literary activity at Rome. Little is known of his life. He was born a...
CÆSAREA – 1. Cæsarea by the Sea: Ancient city of Palestine; called in early times "Strato's Tower" (Στράτωνος πύργος, Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 11, § 2; xiv. 4, § 4; xv. 8, § 5; xix. 8, § 2; idem, "B. J." i. 3, § 4; i. 21, § 5; Strabo, xvi....
CAGLIARI, ABRAHAM DA – Rabbi at Cagliari, Sardinia, in the eighth century. He is mentioned by Antonio di Tharos, the historian of that epoch, and by Delotone, in his "Ritmo di Gialeto." The latter relates that Abraham interpreted many Phenician...
CAIAPHAS – a Greek word; in the Hebrew original, probably not , but ; compare Mishnah Parah iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur I'Histoire de la Palestine," p. 215, note 2; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218; Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews,"...
CALAHOR(R)A – A family of Spanish descent, resident in Cracow from the sixteenth century up to the present time, of which the following members attained prominence:1. Israel Samuel Calahorra (in the place of read ): Writer; lived at Cracow;...
CALATAYUD, CALATAL-YEHUD – City of Aragon, which had a large Jewish community as early as the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥman III. In 1882, while workmen were digging the foundation of a house, they discovered a marble tombstone bearing a Hebrew inscription in...
CALATRAVA – Fortified city in the former province of La Mancha, in Castile. In 1146, when it was captured from the Moors by Alfonso VII., the latter made his favorite, Judah b. Joseph ibn Ezra ha-Nasi, governor of the city, just as...
CALIFS – 1. The attitude of the first Mohammedan rulers toward their Jewish subjects was as much regulated by circumstances as had been that of Mohammed himself. The latter, having subdued the Jewish tribes of Arabia and located them in...
CALIGULA (CAIUS CÆSAR AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS) – Third emperor of Rome; born Aug. 31, 12 C.E. ; assassinated at Rome Jan. 24, 41. He soon displayed the characteristics which made his reign a blot on Roman history. He formed a strong friendship for the Jewish king Agrippa, who,...
CALIMANI, SIMḤAH (SIMON) BEN ABRAHAM – Venetian rabbi and author; died at Venice Aug. 2, 1784. He was a versatile writer, and equally prominent as linguist, poet, orator, and Talmudist. During his rabbinate Calimani was engaged as corrector at the Hebrew...
CALIXTUS II. (GUIDO OF BURGUNDY) – One hundred and sixty-seventh pope (1119-24); born at Quigney, near Besançon, France; died at Rome Dec. 12, 1124. His attitude toward the Jews was a very favorable one. On entering Rome, after having defeated the antipope...
CAMPANTON, ISAAC B. JACOB – Spanish rabbi; born 1360; died at Penafeel in 1463. He lived in the period darkened by the outrages of Ferran Martinez and Vicente Ferrer, when intellectual life and Talmudic erudition were on the decline among the Jews of...
ÇAPATEIRO, JOSEPH – Portuguese traveler of the fifteenth century. After a so-journ in Bagdad, he returned to Lisbon to present a report to King João II. on Ormuz, the emporium of the East-Indian spice trade. He thereupon, by the king's orders, set...
CAPESTANG – Village in the department of Hérault, near Béziers, France. Several official documents testify to the presence of many Jews there in the thirteenth century. Simon ben Meïr, in his work, "Milḥemet Miẓwah," relates that about 1245...
CAPISTRANO, JOHN OF – Franciscan monk; born at Capistrano, Italy, 1386; died 1456. Owing to his remarkable power as a popular preacher, he was sent by Pope Nicholas V. (1447-55) as a legate to Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, with the special...
CAPPADOCIA – Ancient province of Asia Minor. It was known to the Jews in its Greek form also, and is often mentioned in the Talmud and the Midrash. The Roman province Cappadocia extended from the Taurus to the Euxine, and from the Halys to...
CAPTIVITY – By "exile" is meant any form of forced emigration in which the selection of his new habitation is left to the choice of the person banished. In a particular sense the word is used to designate the enforced emigration of larger...