JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
CARACALLA – Roman emperor (211-217); son of Septimius Severus. It is said that as a boy of seven he had a Jewish playfellow, and having heard that the latter had been cruelly whipped on account of his religion, he could not for a long time...
CARBEN, VICTOR OF – Jewish convert; lived at Cologne (1442-1515). Like most converts, Victor endeavored to show his zeal for his new religion by writing against his former coreligionists. When the Jews were banished from the diocese of Cologne...
CARCASSONNE – Town in the department of Aude, France; the Carcaso or Carcassio of the Romans. It is variously transcribed in Hebrew as , etc.Under Roger II. Although the settlement of Jews at Carcassonne goes as far back as the early...
CARDINAL – Translator; lived at the end of the twelfth century and the beginning of the thirteenth, probably in southern France. At the request of Joseph ben Baruch, who, according to Zunz, traveled from France to Jerusalem by way of Egypt...
CARDOSO, ISAAC (FERNANDO) – Physician, philosopher, and polemic writer; born of Marano parents at Celorico in the province Beira, Portugal, before 1615; died at Verona after 1680. He was a brother of Abraham Michael (Miguel) Cardoso. After studying...
CARDOSO, MIGUEL – Shabbethaian prophet and physician; born in Spain about 1630; died at Cairo 1706. He was a descendant of the Maranos in the Portuguese city of Celorico. He studied medicine together with his brother Fernando Isaac, and while the...
CARILLO, ISAAC – Lived in Amsterdam in the latter part of the seventeenth century; member of the Academia de los Floridos, founded by D. Manuel de Belmonte; administrator of the academy Temime Derech in 1683; and treasurer of the Maskil el Dal...
CARLOS, DAVID COHEN – Spanish writer; lived at Hamburg in the first half of the seventeenth century. He translated into Spanish the Song of Songs under the title "Cantares de Selomo, Traduzido de Lengua Caldayca en Espagnol," Hamburg, 1631. The...
CARMI – Title of a small Hebrew review, published for some months in 1882 at Adrianople, under the editorship of Baruch Mitrani.Bibliography: Franco, Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman.G. M. Fr. Mount Carmel from the Sea.(From...
CARPENTRAS – Thirteenth Century. Chief town of the arrondissement of that name in the department of Vaucluse, France. Jews settled at Carpentras at a very early period. The collection of rabbinical decisions called "Ḳol Bo" quotes a document...
CARRASCO – Apologist; born at Madrid about 1670, of Marano parentage. At first an Augustin friar at Burgos and an excellent preacher, he later, on a journey to Rome, became a convert to Judaism at Leghorn. He was familiar with the writings...
CARRETUS, LUDOVICUS – Convert to Christianity; lived at Florence in the middle of the sixteenth century. He was a native of France and was originally called "Todros Cohen." As the physician of a Spanish duke, he was with the imperial troops who...
CARRION DE LOS CONDES – Ancient city of Castile inhabited by Jews at an early date. Although superior to the Christians both in numbers and in property, they submitted in 1126 to the victorious king Alphonso VI., who showed himself favorably disposed...
CARSONO, CORSONO – Spanish astronomer of the fourteenth century. He was commissioned by King Pedro IV. of Aragon to translate from Catalonian into Hebrew the astronomical tables known as "The Tables of Don Pedro," which, at Don Pedro's command,...
CARTHAGE – Ancient city and republic in northern Africa; of special interest to Jews on account of the Phenico-Semitic origin of its inhabitants, its government under the suffetes, recalling the "shofeṭim" (judges) among the Hebrews, and...
CARTHAGENA, DON ALFONSO DE – Convert to Christianity; son of Paul of Burgos; diedat Burgos in 1456. He was baptized when quite young by his father, and became archdeacon of Compostella. Being equally distinguished as states-man and as priest, he succeeded...
CASLARI – Name of a family originally from Caylar (Latin, "Castalarium"), a village in the department of Hérault, France. A rather important Jewish community existed at Caylar in the Middle Ages. After the royal edict of Sept. 17, 1394,...
CASLARI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID – Physician; lived at Besalu, Catalonia, in the first half of the fourteenth century. Caslari was considered one of the most skilful physicians of his time. He was the teacher of Moses Narboni of Perpignan, and one of the ten...
CASLARI, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH HALEVI – Physician and poet, lived at Avignon in 1327. He was the author of a liturgic poem for Purim, beginning with the words . In a manuscript of this poem ("Rev. Et. Juives," ix. 116) the signature contains the words , from which...
CASLARI, JOSHUA – Liturgical poet; lived at Avignon about 1540. He wrote four elegies which are inserted in the manuscript Maḥzor of Avignon; his signature is found at the end of the last. Joshua Caslari is in all probability identical with the...
CASLUHIM – According to Gen. x. 14 (= I Chron. i. 12), the Casluhim are sons of Mizraim; i.e., a part or dependency of the Egyptians. Bochart ("Geographia Sacra," iv. 31) knew no better identification than the Colchians in the eastern...
CASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI BEN JOSEPH BEN JACOB – Provençal exegete, grammarian, and philosopher; born in 1297 at Largentière, whence his surname "Caspi" (= made of silver); died at Tarascon in 1340. His Provençal name was Don Bonafous de Largentera. He traveled much, visiting...
CASPI, NATHANAEL BEN NEHEMIAH – Provençal scholar; lived at the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was a disciple of Frat Maimon, under whose direction he composed in 1424 his first work, a commentary on the "Cuzari." This...
CASSIUS LONGINUS – Questor of Crassus in Syria in 53 B.C. After the unfortunate battle of Carrhæ, Syria, he became independent governor of the province, clearing it of the Parthians, and traversing all parts of the country in order to reestablish...
CASTANHO, ABRAHAM – Spanish poet; lived at Amsterdam in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of an elegy on the martyr Abraham Nuñez of Bernal, who was burned at Cordova May 3, 1655. It was inserted in "Elogios que Zelosos...