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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
CATALAN, MOSES ḤAYYIM – Italian poet; born in Padua; son of the physician Abraham Catalan. He was rabbi in his native town, and died there at an advanced age in 1661. It was to him that the first letters of Isaac Vita Cantarini, whose teacher he was,...
CATALAN, SOLOMON – Probably a grandson of Gerson b. Solomon Catalan. He was rabbi in the city of Coimbra in 1360.Bibliography: Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, p. 24.G. M. K.
CAUCASUS – A division of Russia, bounded on the north by European Russia; on the east by the Caspian sea; on the south by Persia and Asiatic Turkey; and on the west by the Black sea. It consists of six governments, four provinces, and two...
CAVAILLON – Small town in the department of Vaucluse, France. In his book, "Réponses de Rabbins Français et Lorrains" (Vienna, 1881), Joël Müller mentions (No. 17) a rabbi of Cavaillon, Eliezer ben Judah, pupil of Isaac ben Menahem, who...
CELSUS – Greek polemical writer against Christianity; flourished in the second century. He was the first pagan who denounced Christianity, and in his work, "The True Word" (Λόγος 'ΛληΘής), he attempted not only to refute but to ridicule...
CENSORSHIP OF HEBREW BOOKS – Censorship is the regulation, first decreed by the Church and then carried out either by that institution or by the state, whereby books (both manuscript and printed) were examined for the purpose of ascertaining whether they...
CERVERA – Hill-town in Catalonia, Spain, which in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries had a Jewish community. In 1328 a quarter near the San Miguel place was assigned by King Alfonso IV. to the Jews, who enjoyed full commercial...
CHÆREMON – Stoic philosopher and anti-Jewish writer (Origen, "Contra Celsum," i. 59; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." vi. 19), Egyptian priest (Porphyry, "De Abstinentia," iv. 6-8; Jerome, "Adversus Jovinianum Libri II.," ii. 13), teacher of Nero...
CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE – Capital of the department of Marne, France. Little is known of the Jews of this city. In 1292 Davy and his son Salemon, Jews of Chaalons, were living at Paris. The "Document sur les Juifs du Barrois" (1321-23) mentions for...
CHÂLONS-SUR-SAÔNE – Capital of the department of Saône-et-Loire, France. Jews were established in the city at an early period; the council that convened there in 630 forbade them to sell slaves abroad. A mint-master named Priscus, who held office...
CHALYZIANS – A people who, according to the Byzantine historian, John Cinnamus (twelfth century), accepted the Mosaic law. They fought, together with the Dalmatians, against the Greeks in the reign of Manuel Comnenus in 1154. "Chalyzians,"...
CHAMBÉRY – Capital of the department of Savoy, France. When the Jews were driven from France by Philippe Auguste in 1182, many of them sought refuge in Chambéry and the surrounding country, especially at Yenne, Seissel, Aiguebelle, and...
CHARES – Leader of the Zealots in the Judæo-Roman war, and one of the most eminent men of Gamala (Josephus, "B. J." iv. 1, § 9). When the men of Bathyra, "called the Babylonians," who sided with Agrippa and the peace party, were at...
CHARLEMAGNE – King of the Franks and emperor of the West; born April, 742; died Jan. 28, 814. His attitude toward the Jews was rather that of a clever politician than of a liberal-minded man. He realized the advantages to be derived by the...
CHARTRES – Chief town of the department of Eure-et-Loire, France. From time immemorial Jews were established at Chartres, occupying a special quarter called "Rue aux Juifs." In 1394 their synagogue, which was in the Rue Saint-Père, was...
CHÂTEAU-THIERRY – Chief town of the arrondissement of the same name in the department of Aisne, France. At Château-Thierry, as in general throughout Champagne, the seigniors of the country were favorably disposed toward the Jews. The counts of...
CHAVES – City in Portugal, which in the fourteenth century had a fairly large Jewish community, and an "aula," or school, "in which the Law was expounded by the rabbis." This school was subject to a special tax. Before the expulsion of...
CHICAGO ISRAELITE, THE – An American weekly newspaper devoted to Jewish interests; founded January, 1885, and first issued under the editorship of Leo Wise, who for several years conducted a department of "Notes and Comments" of a personal character....
CHINA – The southeastern and main division of the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in China is here treated in two sections: I. Their history; II. Their religious customs, etc.I. History: Whether China was known to Biblical...
CHRISTIANI, PABLO – Jewish convert of Montpellier, France; contemporary of NaḤmanides. After having been baptized, Christiani joined the Order of the Dominicans and attempted to convert his former coreligionists. Failing to make proselytes among...
CHRISTINA AUGUSTA – Queen of Sweden; born at Stockholm Dec. 7, 1626; died at Rome April 19, 1689. She was a daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Mary Eleanora of Brandenburg, and reigned from 1632 to 1654. Her attitude toward the Jews was most...
CHRONOGRAM – A sentence or verse certain letters of which express a date, while the sentence itself alludes to or is descriptive of the event to which the date belongs. The words "chronograph," "chronicon," "chronostichon," "eteostichon,"...
CHRONOLOGY – The science that treats of the computation and adjustment of time or periods of time, and of the record and arrangement of events in the order of time. The chronology of Jewish literature may be divided into two periods: (1)...
CHURCH COUNCILS – Synods of the Roman Catholic Church, possessing legislative power in matters pertaining to doctrine and discipline. The Apostles' synod at Jerusalem (Acts xv.) is regarded as the oldest example of such an assembly. Besides the...
CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS – Roman statesman and orator; born 106; died 43 B.C. In 59 he delivered in the Aurelian Forum at Rome a speech in behalf of Flaccus, in which he spoke disparagingly of the Jews; this was perhaps not from conviction so much as in...