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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
COTA, RODRIGO – Spanish poet; born at Toledo; died 1497. He came of a Marano family, three members of which—Francisco Cota, Lopez Cota, and Juan Fernandez Cota—were employed by the state, and were deprived of their offices in 1450. It is...
COTTBUS – Important manufacturing city of Prussia. It includes about 500 Jews in a total population of 40,000 inhabitants. Jews lived here during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but were subsequently expelled. In the nineteenth...
COUTINHO (CUITIÑO, V04p317004.jpg) – Name of a Jewish-Portuguese family, members of which, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, resided in Amsterdam, Hamburg, Brazil, and the West Indies.1. Abraham Pereyra Coutinho: Mentioned as living in Amsterdam in...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
COVILHÃO – City in the province of Beira, Portugal, which in the thirteenth century had a Jewish congregation and was the seat of a district rabbi. After the banishment of the Jews from Portugal, many Maranos resided in Covilhão, where...
COVO – Name of a Jewish family of Salonica, Turkey, a branch of which lives at Widdin, Bulgaria. As the name indicates, the family was originally of Covo, near Milan, Italy. There have been several rabbis of this name.D.Asher Covo, or...
COVO – Name of a Jewish family of Salonica, Turkey, a branch of which lives at Widdin, Bulgaria. As the name indicates, the family was originally of Covo, near Milan, Italy. There have been several rabbis of this name.D.Asher Covo, or...
CRAJOVA – Chief town of the district of Dolschi; ancient capital of the Banat of Oltenie, Lower Wallachia. It may be assumed that Jews settled here at a very early period, some, doubtless, under Ladislaus Basarab between 1365 and 1367,...
CREMATION – Biblical Data: The act of burning the dead. Cremation was not the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was among other contemporary nations (see J. Grimm, "Kleine Schriften," ii. 226). It was, however, not unknown...
CRÉMIEU – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. As early as the fifteenth century it had an important Jewish community. Raoul de Gaucourt, governor of Dauphiné, renewed in 1441 the privileges of the Jews of that town for seven...
CREMONA – Italian city in the plain of Lombardy; capital of the province of Cremona. The beginnings of the Jewish community in this city appear to date back to the middle of the twelfth century, but the first authentic notice is of the...
CRESCAS, ABIATHARIBN, HA-KOHEN – Physician in ordinary to King Juan II. of Aragon (1458-79); skilful oculist and learned astrologer. In Sept., 1468, he freed the king, who was seventy years of age, from a double cataract of the eyes, which had caused his total...
CRESCAS, ASTRUC DON – Provençal scholar; lived probably at Perpignan, in the fourteenth century. Samuel, son of Solomon Shalom of Perpignan (compare Azulai, "Shem ha-Gedolim," p. 188), consulted Crescas on a halakic question in a complicated case of...
CRESCAS, MORDECAI EN, OF ORANGE – Prominent member of the community of Carcassonne, France; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. As leader (syndic) of the Jews of the whole district, he succeeded in obtaining special jurisdiction for the Jews of...
CRESCAS, VIDAL, DE CASLAR – Physician and liturgical poet of Avignon; member of the Yiẓhari family of that place. In 1327 Crescas translated into Hebrew the "Regimen Sanitatis" of his contemporary, the Spanish physician Arnold de Villanueva, under the...
CRESCENZ, JULIUS BERNHARD – Anti-Jewish writer in Germany at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He wrote "De Judæorum Privilegiis," Darmstadt, 1604-12; "Geistliches Bedenken, ob die Juden und Ihr Wucher in dem Römischen Reich zu Dulden," ib....
CRESQUES LO JUHEU – Chartographer who flourished at Majorca and Barcelona at the end of the fourteenth century. Prince Juan of Aragon sent to Charles VI. of France in 1381, when the latter was a lad of thirteen years, a "mappa mundi" made by...
CRISPIN, ISAAC IBN – Spanish moralist and poet; lived at the beginning of the twelfth century. Judah al-Ḥarizi praises him among the renowned poets of the twelfth century; and, judging from the title ("The Great Prince"), which he prefixes to...
CRONEBURG, BENJAMIN BEN SOLOMON – German publicist; lived at Neuwied, Prussia, in the eighteenth century. In 1758 he founded at Neuwied the Jewish periodical "Der Grosse Schauplatz" (The Great Stage), printed in German.Bibliography: Karpeles, Gesch. der...
CRUSADES, THE – First Crusade: 1096. Expeditions from western Europe to recover Jerusalem and the holy sepulcher from the control of the infidel. The undisciplined mobs accompanying the first three Crusades attacked the Jews in Germany, France,...
CRYPTO-JEWS – Jews professing another religion but practising Jewish rites in secret in their own homes. There was some tendency toward this even in early days, as is shown by the attempts of certain Jews to avoid being taken for such (see...
CUENCA – City in New Castile, Spain, which, after its conquest by Alfonso VII., possessed Jewish inhabitants. In the "fuero," or charter, granted to the city about 1189, the king secured to the Jews full personal protection, together...
CUMANUS, VENTIDIUS – Roman procurator in Judea (48-52). According to Tacitus ("Annales," xii. 54), he divided the procuratorship with Felix; the latter being at the head of Samaria, the former of Galilee. Such a division is unknown to Josephus, and,...
CUNEO – Capital of the Italian province of the same name. According to local traditions, a Jewish community, founded probably after the expulsion of the Jews from France (1381), existed there in the fourteenth century. It seems to have...
CURIEL – A wealthy Marano family which settled in the Netherlands and at Hamburg about the sixteenth century. They intermarried largely with the Da Costa family. In 1682 great excitement was caused at Antwerp by the attempt of the rector...