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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
FIGAH – River in the Damascene, affluent of the Barada (the Biblical "Abana"). "Figah" comes from the Greek πηγὴ, and is still to be found in the name "'Ain Fijah," the chief source of the Barada. Reland has identified it with Pliny's...
FIRUZ-SHABUR – City of Babylonia; the "Sipphara" of Ptolemy and the Βηρσαβῶρα of Zosimus; situated a few miles South of Nehardea; built by Shabur I. about 250 C.E. In Berakot 59b it is called . "Formerly one who saw the Euphrates at the bridge...
FLAVIA DOMITILLA – Convert to Judaism and martyr at Rome. An early branch of the imperial Flavian house was at one time inclined toward Judaism and Christianity. Even Titus Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's elder brother, led during his last years a...
FISCUS JUDAICUS – The yearly Temple tax of half a shekel prescribed by the Law (Ex. xxx. 13; compare Sheḳ. i. 1), and which the Jews of the Diaspora contributed during the time of the Second Temple. It was diverted by Vespasian, after the...
FLACCUS – Governor of Egypt; enemy and persecutor of the Jews of Alexandria, for which reason Philo, in 42 C. E., directed a special work ("In Flaccum") against him. Philo only once (§ 1) gives the full name, φλάκκος 'A ουιλλιος. This is...
FLACCUS, L. POMPONIUS – Roman governor of Syria (32-35?); no particulars concerning his life are known. When Agrippa (afterward King Agrippa I.), while poor and suffering, was insulted by his brother-in-law Herod Antipas, he applied to Flaccus, with...
FLACCUS, L. VALERIUS – Proconsul of Asia Minor in 62-61 B.C. He is notorious in the history of the Jews for having seized for the public treasury the Temple money intended for Jerusalem; thus, at Apamea, nearly 100 pounds of gold through the Roman...
FLAVIUS (RAIMUNDUS) MITHRIDATES – Italian scholar; flourished at Rome in the second half of the fifteenth century. His Jewish name is unknown. About 1486 he lived at Fratta, near Ferrara, in the house of Count Johannes Pico de Mirandola, whom he instructed in...
FLORENCE – Capital of Tuscany, Italy. Jews settled here probably before 1400. They were not needed in this flourishing commercial city, the scene of factional strife between the Guelfs and Ghibellines; there was an abundance of capital,...
FLORUS, GESSIUS – Last procurator of Judea (64-66). Florus was notorious for his cruelty and rapacity, and was so much detested by the Jews that in comparisonwith him Albinus was considered a just man. Florus, indeed, hastened the outbreak of the...
FONTANELLA, ISRAEL BERECHIAH BEN JOSEPH JEKUTHIEL – Italian rabbi and cabalist; lived at Reggio Emilia, later at Rovigo, at the end of the seventeenth century and in the first half of the eighteenth. He was also an eminent Talmudist (see Lampronti, "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," s.v. ). An...
FOA – French family; migrated from Italy in the eighteenth century. One branch of the family has been authorized to assume the name of "Margfoy." Solomon Foa, the first member of the family to settle at Bordeaux, was the father of...
FOIX – Capital of the department of Ariège, France. In the Middle Ages there were Jews here as well as in other towns in the county of Foix, especially at Saverdun and Pamiers. The largest Jewish community in the district was at...
FOLZ, HANS – German playwright and physician of the fifteenth century; said to have been bornin Worms. He is mentioned as "Hans Falz zu Nurmberk balbirer." Folz wrote numerous farces and "Fastnachtspiele" (Shrove Tuesday dramas), and...
FORLI – City in the Romagna, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in connection with Jewish history by Hillel of Verona, who lived at Forli for some time about 1290, and there wrote his circular letter to Maestro Gaio and his work...
FOY – Branch of the family Foa, settled in the southwest of France since the middle of the eighteenth century. Special mention may be made of Solomon Foy, born at Bordeaux, Jan. 17, 1858, a violinist and author of "Rimes Voilées"...
FRAGA – City in Aragon. In 1328 Alfonso IV. confirmed all the privileges which the Moncadas had granted to the Jews of Fraga. Four years later he permitted his second wife, Leonora, to whom he had presented Huesca and Fraga, to admit...
FRANCES, IMMANUEL BEN DAVID – Italian poet and rabbinical scholar; born in Mantua July 22, 1618 (?); died at Leghorn after 1703. He received his instruction from his elder brother Jacob and from Joseph Firmo of Ancona. In 1674 he was chosen by some Italian...
FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID – Italian scholar and poet; born at Mantua in 1615; died at Florence in 1667. After having been thoroughly grounded in the Talmud by his father, he continued his studies with Shemaiah de Medina ( ) at Venice. His reputation as a...
FRANCES, JOSEPH – Spanish scholar; lived at Ferrara, Italy, about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was the author of a commentary to Jedaiah Bedersi's "Beḥinat ha-'Olam" and "Baḳḳashat ha-Memin," published with the texts (Ferrara,...
FRANCHE-COMTÉ – Ancient province of France, also called "Haute-Bourgogne" or "Comté de, Bourgogne"; now divided into the departments of Haute-Saône, Doubs, and Jura. There is little mention of Jews in Franche-Comté before the thirteenth...
FRANCIA – A family of Spanish descent, whose arms, according to D'Hozier, were: Argent, a crown bearing the letters "G. F. R." sable, surrounded by two palms sinople, with branches saltire.Members of the Francia family emigrated in the...
FRANCIA DE BEAUFLEURY – A Jew of Spanish descent, who went to Bordeaux, probably from London, about 1760. He is the author of various works, among them being "Choix de Poésies Fugitives," Paris, 1783, and "Histoire de l'Etablissement des Juifs A...
FRANCO – A Jewish family which derived its name from a place near Navarre, Spain. There were Francos at Amsterdam, Venice, Tunis, Constantinople, Adrianople, Silistria, Magnesia, Smyrna, Brusa, and in the islands of Crete and Rhodes....
ORLEANS – Chief city of the department of Loiret, France. Its Jewish community dates from the sixth century. The various councils which met at that time in the city enacted special laws against the Jews. In 533 the second Council of...