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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
GALIPAPA, ḤAYYIM – Spanish rabbi; son of Abraham Galipapa; born at Monzon about 1310; died about 1380. He was rabbi at Huesca, and later at Pamplona, where he directed a Talmud school. Galipapa belonged to the liberal school, setting aside the...
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN – In the Thirteenth Century. City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, Germany. The date of the organization of its Jewish community is uncertain. Probably no Jews were living in Frankfort at the time of the first and second...
FRAT MAIMON – Provençal scholar; flourished in the second half of the fourteenth century. The name "Frat" is, according to Neubauer, abbreviated from "Frater." Frat Maimon was the author of four works, which are known only by quotations made...
GALIPAPA, ḤAYYIM MEBORAK – Bulgarian rabbi; lived and taught at Sofia about 1650 (Conforte, "Ḳore ha-Dorot," p. 52a).G. M. K.
FRIEDMANN, PAUL – German philanthropist; born at Berlin in the middle of the nineteenth century. Friedmann is of Jewish descent, and is connected with the family of Moses Mendelssohn. Much exercised over the fate of the Russian Jews after the...
FRIESENHAUSEN, DAVID BEN MEÏR – Bavarian mathematician; born at Friesenhausen about the middle of the eighteenth century; lived at Berlin, and later at Hunfalu and Ujhely, Hungary; died at Gyula-Fehérvá March 23, 1828. Till the age of thirty he occupied...
FROSOLONI, ISAAC ḤAYYIM – Italian poet of the eighteenth century; born at Sienna; died at Leghorn 1794. On the completion of his Hebrew and secular studies at Sienna he went to Leghorn, where he became a member of the yeshibah. He formed an intimate...
FULLANA, NICOLAS DE OLIVER Y – Chartographer; born on the island of Majorca; lived there as "Capitan" or "Cavallero Mallorquin" as late as 1650. On Oct. 1 of that year he wrote a Latin epigram of eight lines to Vicente Mut's "Historia del Reyno de Mallorca."...
FULVIA – A Roman lady of high station, converted to Judaism through the teachings of a Jew who had sought refuge in Rome to escape punishment. This impostor, together with three others, persuaded her to contribute purple and gold for the...
FUNDAM, ISAAC – Spanish author and publisher; lived in Amsterdam about 1723. He wrote "Varios y Honestos Entretenimientos en Varios Entremeses, y Pasos Apasibles, que di á Luz D. Alonso de Castillo, Solozarno en Mexico" (Amsterdam, 1723), and...
FUNDÄO – Chief town in the district of the same name, province of Beira, Portugal. Of the27,000 inhabitants of the entire "conselho" more than one-third are of Jewish origin. For more than two centuries the Inquisition decimated this...
FUNES – Town in Navarre, in the district of Olite; received a fuero (charter) in 1120, containing several clauses in restraint of the Jews there. In case of a bill amounting to more than five solidos, the Jew had to take an oath on a...
FÜRSTENFELD – Town in Styria, Austria. Jews began to settle there in 1278, Rudolph of Habsburg having granted (1277) to its inhabitants the usual franchises and rights of trade, and confirmed to the Jews the letter of privileges granted them...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GABBATHA – 1. Town corresponding to the Biblical "Gibeah," mentioned in the Septuagint (I Chron. xii. 3), in Josephus ("Ant." v. 1, § 29; vi. 4, § 2, 6), and in the "Onomastica Sacra" of Eusebius and of Jerome. In the last-named it answers...
GABISHON, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB – Algerian physician and scholar; descended from a Granada family; died at Tlemçen in 1605. He established himself as a physician in 1574 at Algiers, where he acquired a large practise. Gabishon was the author of a commentary on...
GABRIEL BEN JUDAH OF VITRY – Italian physician; flourished in the sixteenth century. His name seems to indicate that he was a native of Vitry, France, but Gross ("Gallia Judaica," p. 197) thinks that "Vitry" here stands for "Vittoria" in Italy. In 1530 he...
GABRIEL OF MILHAUD – French physician and translator; flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. He translated, in 1583, under the title "Mebo Arnabat," Arnauld of Villanova's dissertation on Hippocrates' maxim "Ars longa, vita brevis"...
GAILLAC – Small town in the department of Tarn, France; mentioned as in the Responsa (No. 47) of Nissim ben Reuben Gerundi. Jews were living there as early as the thirteenth century, being under the jurisdiction both of Count Alphonse of...
GAJO, MAESTRO (ISAAC BEN MORDECAI) – Physician to Pope Nicholas IV. or Boniface VIII. at the end of the thirteenth century. For him Nathan of Cento translated into Hebrew an Arabic work by 'Ammar ibn Ali al-Mauṣili on the cure of diseases of the eye. Gajo was held...
GALEN (GALENUS CLAUDIUS) – His Philosophy Criticized by Maimonides. Greek physician and philosopher; born at Pergamus, Mysia, about 131; died about 200. Eclipsed by those of Aristotle, Galen's philosophical works were not held in high esteem by the Jews....
GALICIA., Spain – An ancient province in the northwestern part of Spain; a barren, mountainous region where Jews settled sparsely in the eleventh century. There were Jewish communities at Allariz, Coruña, Orense, Monforte, Pontevedra, Rivadavia,...
GALLEGO, JOSEPH SHALOM DE SHALOM – Neo-Hebraic poet; died in Palestine Nov. 25, 1624. He was the first ḥazzan of the first synagogue erected in Amsterdam, and occupied the position fourteen years, then removed to Palestine. He edited the work "Imre No'am,"...
GALLUS, CAIUS CESTIUS – Consul "suffectus" in 42 C.E. Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," xxxiv. 48) calls him "consularis," i.e.," retired consul." According to a dubious passage in Tacitus ("Annales," xv. 25), he was appointed successor to Corbulo as legate...
GAMA, VASCO DA – Portuguese discoverer of the highway to India by sea. Like Columbus, he was materially aided in his voyage by Abraham Zacuto, astrologer to King D. Manuel. As commander-in-chief of the fleet destined for India, he set sail from...