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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
GAMALA – City in Palestine, opposite Taricheæ, beyond Lake Tiberias. It had an unusually strong position on the side of a mountain with a protruding spur, which gave it its name ( = "camel"). It was accessible only from the south, on...
GAMES AND SPORTS – Playful methods of enjoying leisure moments. The ancient Hebrews practised target-shooting with arrows (I Sam. xx. 20; Job xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12; comp. also Bacher in "R. E. J." xxvi. 63), or with slings and stones (Judges xx....
GAON – An influential Jewish family in Vitoria, Spain.Don Gaon: Chief farmer of taxes under Henry IV. of Castile, whose suite he accompanied through the Basque territory on the way to S. Juan de Luz on the Spanish-French frontier....
GARCIA, BERNARDO (BENJAMIN?) NUÑEZ – Spanish poet; lived in Amsterdam about the middle of the eighteenth century. His little burlesques and occasional poems are extant in manuscript. Among them are an epithalamium, written in the year 1735 for the wedding...
GASCON, ABRAHAM – Scholar of the sixteenth century. Gascon had in his possession Samuel of Sarsah's "Miklal Yofi," to which he added marginal notes, and the index of which he completed.Bibliography: Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS. No. 1296.G. M....
GAZA – Palestinian city on the Mediterranean, about 85 kilometers southeast of Jerusalem. In early times it was one of the terminals of the trade-route from South Arabia, as well as from Petra and Palmyra. Gaza was condemned by Amos...
GENTILI – Italian family of Gorizia, several members of which were eminent rabbis and Talmudic authorities. Of these the most important were:Azriel Gentili: Cabalist; lived at Gorizia in the seventeenth century. He is quoted by Issachar...
GERONA – Situation of Jewry. Fortified city in northern Spain. As early as 1002 Pope Sylvester acknowledged to Bishop Odo of Gerona the receipt of the tax ("census") of the Jewish community there ("Marca Hispanica," Appendix, No. 150, p....
GERSHON BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI (YIDDELS) OF PRAGUE – Traveler of the first half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of the curious and extremely rare book "Gelilot Ereẓ Yisrael," in Judæo-German, in which he describes several routes to Jerusalem and gives an account of...
GERSHON BEN HEZEKIAH – Provençal physician, astronomer, and grammarian; lived at Beaumes toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was the author of: "Shib'ah 'Enayim," a treatise on grammar and on the Masorah;...
GERSHON, ISAAC – Rabbi and corrector of the press at Venice at the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century. He was born in Safed, to which place he returned some time after 1625. According to Conforte, he corrected all...
GERSHON BEN SOLOMON OF ARLES – Provençal philosopher; flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century; said to be the father of Gersonides. He was the author of "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim" (Venice, 1547; Rödelsheim, 1801), a sort of encyclopedia divided into...
GERUSIA – In Jerusalem. A council of elders. Moses was assisted by a council of seventy elders (Num. xi. 16), and the elders as representatives of the people of Israel are often referred to (I Kings viii. 1, xx. 7; II Kings x. 1; Ezek....
GESELLSCHAFT DER HEBRÄISCHEN LITTERATUR-FREUNDE – Society for promoting study of the Hebrew language, called in Hebrew "Ḥebrat Doreshe Leshon 'Eber." It was founded at Königsberg in 1783 by Isaac Euchel and Mendel Bresslau, two young Hebrew scholars, for the study of the...
GHAYYAT, SOLOMON B. JUDAH – Hebrew poet of the twelfth century; possibly a grandson of Isaac Gḥayyat, the famous teacher of Lucena. Solomon was on terms of friendship with Judah ha-Levi, who dedicated to him one of the most important compositions of his...
GHETTO – Derivation of Word. Originally the street or quarter of a city in which the Jews were compelled to live, and which was closed every evening by gates; the term is now applied to that part of any city or locality chiefly or...
GIL VICENTE – Portuguese dramatist; born at Lisbon about 1470; called by the Portuguese their Plautus, their Shakespeare, and the father of their comedy. He numbered secret Jews among his friends, to one of whom, Affonso Lopez Capaio, a poet...
GIMEL – Third letter of the Hebrew alphabet, so called, perhaps, because the shape of the letter in the ancient West-Semitic script bears a resemblance to the neck of the camel. In pronunciation gimel corresponds to the Greek γ or to...
GISCALA – City of Galilee, not far from Tyre; known as the native city of the patriot John of Giscala. John tried to keep his fellow citizens from engaging in battle with the Romans, but when Giscala was captured and burned by the...
GLADIATOR – A fighter in the gymnasium or arena. Gladiatorial contests were an aspect of Roman life which was intensely hated by the Jews. In Greek a gladiator is called ἀϑλητής or μονομάχος, meaning a single fighter, and he is also so...
GLAPHYRA – Daughter of the Cappadocian king Archelaus. Her first husband was Alexander, son of Herod I. and Mariamne. After his execution (7 B.C.) she married King Juba of Mauretania, whom she is said to have met for the first time during...
GOMEZ DE SOSA (SOSSA), ISAAC – Latin poet ("famoso poeta Latino," according to De Barrios); son of Abraham Gomez do Sosa. He was arbiter at the academy of poetry founded by Don Manuel de Belmonte in 1677. Gomez wrote the Latin epitaph on his father's tomb, a...
GOMEZ, MANUEL – Physician; born about 1580 of Portuguese parentage at Antwerp. After studying medicine at Evora he settled as a physician at Amsterdam. He wrote "De Pestilentiæ Curatione" (Antwerp, 1603; 3d ed., ib. 1643), and is said to have...
GOMEZ, ANTONIO ENRIQUEZ – Spanish poet; born in Segovia toward the end of the sixteenth century; died in 1662. He was a son of the Marano Diego Enriquez de Villanueva. Of exceptional abilities, Antonio devoted himself to study while very young. At the...
GRACIAN, SOLOMON BEN MOSES (ḤEN) – Talmudist of Barcelona; lived at the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries; died in 1307. He was one of the synod that signed with R. Solomon b. Adret the decree of excommunication against Maimonides'...