JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
GONZALO GARCIA DE SANTA MARIA – Spanish bishop and enemy of the Jews; born at Burgos in 1379; baptized as a boy of eleven, together with his father, Paul de Burgos or de S. Maria. He was appointed Archdeacon of Briviesca in 1412, and then successively Bishop...
GONZALO, MARTINEZ – A poor Spanish knight who was promoted to high offices through the instrumentality of Joseph de Ecija, in whose service he was. Hebrought charges against his master and against Samuel ibn Waḳar before King Alfonso XI. (1312-60),...
GRACIAN, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC BEN SHEALTIEL (ḤEN) – Physician, philosopher, translator, Hebraist; flourished about the end of the thirteenth century; born either at Barcelona or at Toledo. Confounded with Zerahiah b. Isaac ha-Levi Saladin, a translator. Zerahiah went to Rome...
GORGIAS – Syrian general of the second century B.C. After Judas Maccabeus had defeated the Syrians, they determined to send a stronger force against him. According to I Macc. iii. 38, which Josephus follows ("Ant." xii. 7, § 3), it was...
GOSLAR – Town in the province of Hanover, Germany; on an affluent of the Ocker at the north-east foot of the Harz. According to the chronicle of Erdwin von der Hardt, "Plebis Tribunus et Antiquitatum Goslariensium Mirator," Frederick I....
GOTHA – Capital of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Germany. A Jew named Jacob who lived at Cologne in the middle of the thirteenth century is designated as a native of Gotha (Höniger, "Das Judenschreinsbuch der Laurenzpfarre in Köln,"...
GÖTTINGEN – From the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century. City in the province of Hanover, Germany; formerly capital of the principality of Grubenhagen under the dominion of the Guelfic dukes. Jews settled in Göttingen in the thirteenth...
GRACIAN – A prominent Spanish Jewish family descended from Judah ben Barzilai, the members of which, are known to have lived chiefly at Barcelona from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. Most of the members used the name "Ḥen"; one...
GRACIAN, SHEALTIEL (ḤEN) – Rabbi of Barcelona; flourished in the beginning of the thirteenth century. During the lifetime of R. Nissim Gerondi, Shealtiel Gracian was rabbi of Fraga, Spain. Owing to his great learning, he was nominated rabbi at Alcala, and...
GRAMMAR, HEBREW – Although Hebrew grammar, together with Hebrew lexicography—the two constituting Hebrew philology, and aiming at the systematic investigation and presentation of Biblical Hebrew—originated as an auxiliary science to Bible...
GRANADA – Capital of the Spanish province of the same name. It is said to have been inhabited by Jews from the earliest times; hence it was also called "Villa de Judios" (City of Jews), and, like Cordova, it was entrusted by the Arabian...
GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI – Italian rabbi; died at Modena in 1685; cousin of Nathanael b. Benjamin Trabot. He probably belonged to the Gallico family, the name "Graziano" being the Italian equivalent of "Johanan." Graziano, who was rabbi of Modena, was the...
GREEK LANGUAGE AND THE JEWS – This article will be confined to the Greek material found in rabbinical works, since the language of the Septuagint and the New Testament requires separate discussion, and does not belong here. Latin was made accessible to the...
GREGORY I., THE GREAT – Pope from 590 to 604; born about 540; died 604. Descended from an old Roman senatorial family, he had held various high official positions when he suddenly retired to one of the cloisters which he had founded. Sent as ambassador...
GREGORY BAR HEBRÆUS – Jacobite Syrian historian, physician, philosopher, and theologian; born at Malatia, Asiatic Turkey, 1226; died at Maragha, Persia, 1286. Gregory first studied medicine under his father, Aaron, a Jewish physician who embraced...
GRENOBLE – Capital of the department of Isère, France. It possessed a Jewish community from the end of the thirteenth century. Jacob ben Solomon, a Grenoble Jew (Zunz, "Z. G." p. 208, erroneously calls him "Isaac"), died a martyr to his...
GRONEMANN, SELIG – German rabbi; born at Flötenstein, West Prussia, Dec. 7, 1843; attended the gymnasium at Konitz and the seminary and university at Breslau; became rabbi at Strasburg (1872) and at Danzig (1878), and district rabbi of Hanover...
HADRIAN – Roman emperor (117-138). At the very beginning of his reign he was called upon to suppress the final outbreaks of Jewish rebellion at Cyrene and Alexandria. According to a late but trustworthy source, he is said to have enticed...
GUADALAJARA – City in Castile, Spain. When Tariḳ ibn Zaid conquered the city in 711, he found Jews there, as in Toledo and other places, and gave the conquered city to them to guard. In the "fuero" (charter) which Alfonso VII. gave to the...
GUARDIA, LA, THE HOLY CHILD OF – Subject of a story invented by the Spanish Inquisition shortly after its institution. A Christian boy, whose name, age, and family vary in different accounts, is said to have been crucified and killed by six Maranos and five...
GUGLIELMO, BENJAMIN – Italian dancing-master; flourished in the fifteenth century at Pesaro. His master was Domenico di Ferrara, in whose "Liber Ballorum" (1460) he is mentioned. Guglielmo himself wrote a treatise on dancing, "Trattato dell' Arte del...
GUETTA, ISAAC – Talmudic scholar and promoter of Jewish learning, whose ancestors went to the Orient from Huete, Spain; born June 5, 1777; lived for several years in Triest. In his old age he went to Safed, where, as in Tiberias, he founded...
GUILLAUME OF AUVERGNE – French scholastic; bishop of Paris from 1228 to 1249. He was one of the originators of Christian scholasticism in the thirteenth century. In his writings he displayed an extensive knowledge of Hebrew literature; and, although he...
GUIMARÃES – City of Portugal. In the fourteenth century it had a wealthy Jewish community, whose quarter was located on the site of the present fish-market, "praça do peixe," and extended to the Holy Ghost street. A few years previous to...
GUMPERZ, AARON SOLOMON – German scholar and physician; born Dec. 10, 1723; died 1769. In March, 1751, Gumperz graduated as M.D. from the University of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, his dissertation being "Ueber die Temperamente." He was the first Prussian Jew...