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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
HIERAPOLIS – City in Phrygia, Asia Minor; mentioned in Col. iv. 13 together with the neighboring Laodicea. It was a prosperous city during the Roman period, largely on account of its medicinal springs. A community of Jews lived there during...
HIPPOLYTUS – Christian theologian of the second and third centuries; schismatic Bishop of Rome in opposition to Calixtus I. (217); deported in 235 to Sardinia, where he died. Hippolytus was one of the most prolific writers among the Church...
HITI, AL- – Karaite chronicler; flourished (probably in Egypt) in the first half of the fifteenth century. He was a native of Hit (whence his surname), on the Euphrates, about thirty leagues to the west of Bagdad. He is supposed by...
HITTITES – A race of doubtful ethnic and linguistic affinities that occupied, from the sixteenth century until 717 B.C., a territory of vague extent, but which probably centered about Kadesh on the Orontes and Carchemish on the upper...
ḤIYYA AL-DAUDI – Liturgical poet; died in Castile in 1154; descendant of the Babylonian nasi Hezekiah. Many seliḥot bearing the signature of Ḥiyya (though whether all are by the subject of this article is uncertain) are found in the Maḥzors of...
ḤIYYA ROFE – Rabbi of Safed; died in 1620. Having studied Talmud under Solomon Sagis and Cabala under Ḥayyim Vital, Ḥiyya was ordained in accordance with the old system ("semikah") reintroduced into Palestine by Jacob Berab. In 1612 Ḥiyya...
HOLOFERNES, HOLOPHERNES – General of Nebuchadnezzar, mentioned in the apocryphal Book of Judith; killed at Bethulia (Judith xiii. 6-8). The name is evidently of Persian origin, similar information to "Artaphernes," "Dataphernes," "Tissaphernes," the last...
HONORIUS – Emperor of the Western Roman Empire (395-423). The laws of Arcadius, the Eastern emperor, regarding the Jews were signed also by Honorius, and applied at first equally to the Western Empire. But Honorius later promulgated...
IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM BEN MEÏR (ABEN EZRA) – First Period: to 1140. Scholar and writer; born 1092-1093; died Jan. 28 (according to Rosin, Reime und Gedichte, p. 82, n. 6, 1167 (see his application of Gen.xii. 4 to himself). His father's name was Meïr and his family was...
IBN KILLIS, YA'ḲUB BEN YUSUF (ABU AL-FARAJ) – Vizier to the calif of Egypt, Al-'Aziz Nizar; born at Bagdad 930; died at Cairo 990-991. His parents were Jews; and he himself professed the Jewish religion during the first half of his life. His biographers relate that he...
HUESCA – City in Aragon. Toward the end of the thirteenth century it contained a specially privileged Jewish community of 160; it also had a rabbinical college of its own (Solomon ben Adret, Responsa, Nos. 300, 1179). The congregation,...
HUETE – Spanish city, in the bishopric of Cuenca. A considerable Jewish community lived there in the thirteenth century. The city is especially known because of the "Padron de Huete," the apportioning, in 1290, of the taxes which the...
ḤUYAYY IBN AKHṬAB – Chief of the Banu al-Nadir; executed at Medina March, 627. Ḥuyayy was a courageous warrior and the most inveterate enemy of Mohammed, so that Ibn Hisham, Mohammed's biographer, calls him "the enemy of Allah." He was also a...
IBN ALFANGE – Spanish author; flourished in the eleventh century. Nothing is known of his life except that he embraced Christianity in 1094 and filled the position of "official" under the famous hero Cid Campeador (Rodrigo, or Ruy Diaz de...
IBN BAL'AM, ABU ZAKARYA YAḤYA (R. JUDAH) – Hebrew grammarian of Toledo, Spain, about 1070-90. In the introduction to his "Moznayim" Abraham ibn Ezra mentions Ibn Bal'am among the early masters of Hebrew grammar, and Moses ibn Ezra, in his "Kitab al-Muḥaḍarah," gives the...
HYRCANUS – Collector of the royal revenues in Egypt; born in Jerusalem about 220 B.C.; died in 175; youngest son of the tax-farmer Joseph ben Tobiah by his second wife, the daughter of his brother Solymius. Displaying from his childhood...
HYRCANUS, JOHN (JOHANAN) I. – High priest; prince of the Hasmonean family; born about 175; died 104 (Schürer). He was a wise and just ruler and a skilful warrior. As a young man he distinguished himself as a general in the war against the Syrian general...
HYRCANUS II. – High priest from about 79 to 40 B.C.; eldest son of Alexander Jannæus and Alexandra. His mother, who had installed him in the office of high priest, named him as her successor to the throne. He had scarcely reigned three months...
IBN DANAN, SAADIA BEN MAIMUN BEN MOSES – Lexicographer, philosopher, and poet; flourished at Granada in the second half of the fifteenth century. He exercised the function of dayyan at Granada and enjoyed a great reputation as Talmudist. When the Jews were banished...
IBN EZRA, ISAAC (ABU SA'D) – Spanish poet of the twelfth century; son of Abraham ibn Ezra. He won fame as a poet at an early age, probably while still in his Spanish home. Al-Ḥarizi ("Taḥkemoni," iii.) says of him: "Like his father, Isaac also drew from the...
IBN EZRA, JUDAH – Son of Joseph ibn Ezra of Granada; Spanish state official of the twelfth century. He was raised by Alfonso VII. of Castileto the position of commander of the frontier fort of Calatrava, to the dignity of "nasi" (prince), and, a...
IBN GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH (ABU AYYUB SULAIMAN IBN YAḤYA IBN JABIRUL) – Spanish poet, philosopher, and moralist; born in Malaga about 1021; died about 1058 in Valencia. He is called by Grätz "the Jewish Plato," and by Steinschneider "the most original philosophical writer among the Jews and Arabs."...
IBN GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH (ABU AYYUB SULAIMAN IBN YAḤYA IBN JABIRUL) – Spanish poet, philosopher, and moralist; born in Malaga about 1021; died about 1058 in Valencia. He is called by Grätz "the Jewish Plato," and by Steinschneider "the most original philosophical writer among the Jews and Arabs."...
IBN JAU, JACOB – Silk-manufacturer at Cordova, occupying a high position at the court of the calif Hisham; died about 1000. Amador de los Rios calls him "Ibn Gan." Jacob and his brother Joseph, finding in the court of the palace a large sum of...
IBN MALKAH, JUDAH BEN NISSIM – Spanish philosopher; flourished either in Spain or in Africa in the middle of the fourteenth century. He was imbued with Neoplatonic ideas, and he wrote from that standpoint an important philosophical work in Arabic in three...