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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
IBN WAḲAR (HUACAR), SAMUEL – Physician to King Alfonso XI. of Castile; astronomer and astrologer; flourished in the fourteenth century. A favorite of the king, he gained influence in the administration of the finances of the country, and received the...
IBN YAḤYA, DAVID – Grammarian and philisopher; son of the martyr Don Joseph; born at Lisbon 1465; died 1543. He was a pupil of David ben Solomon ibn Yaḥya, a relative, who wrote expressly for him two school-books, entitled respectively "Leshon...
IBN YAḤYA, JOSEPH BEN DAVID – Italian exegete and philosopher; born at Florence 1494; died at Imola 1539. His parents were Spanish exiles who had lived for a time in Florence and had then settled in Imola. His son Gedaliah, author of "Shalshelet...
IBN, ZABARRA – Judæo-Spanish family-name, found as early as the twelfth century; derived perhaps from a place-name. In Spanish documents a Jafre Avinzabarre is mentioned, in 1258; and, toward the end of the thirteenth century, at Manresa, the...
IBN ZABARRA, JUDAH – Poet and theologian; flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; probably a native of Spain, where the surname of "Zabara" was borne by several scholars. He was the pupil of Aaron ha-Levi (d. 1293-94) and of Meïr...
IBRAHIM IBN YA'ḲUB, The Israelite – Jewish merchant-traveler of the tenth century. The little that is known about Ibrahim ibn Ya'ḳub is from his own account of the countries of the Slavs, and this is rather uncertain. He was a merchant and a slave-dealer, and...
IMMANUEL BEN JEKUTHIEL OF BENEVENTO – Grammarian and corrector for the press at Mantua; lived in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was connected with the printing establishments of Meïr Sofer ben Ephraim of Padua and Jacob ben Naphtali ha-Kohen of Gazolo,...
IMMANUEL B. SOLOMON B. JEKUTHIEL – Italian scholar, satirical poet, and the most interesting figure among the Jews of Italy; born at Rome c. 1270; died probably at Fermo c. 1330. He was a member of an important and wealthy family, and occupied a very prominent...
INCUNABULA – Works printed in the fifteenth century. Those of Jewish interest consist of (a) works printed in Hebrew and (b) works in other types relating to Jewish subjects. Of the former about 101 can be traced as certainly printed before...
INN – House of entertainment for travelers. In the Bible references are made to lodging-places ("malon") where caravans or parties of travelers stopped for the night (comp. Gen. xlii. 27, xliii. 21; Ex. iv. 24). This does not...
INNOCENT III. (LOTHARIO CONTI) – Pope from 1198 to 1216; born at Anagni in 1161; elected June 8, 1198; died July 17, 1216. A Roman writer said of him, "Thy words are the words of God; thy deeds are the deeds of the devil" (Gregorovius, "Gesch. der Stadt Rom,"...
INNOCENT XI. (BENEDETTO ODESCALCHI) – Pope from 1676 to 1689; born at Como in 1611; elected Sept. 21, 1676; died Aug. 12, 1689. That the Jews were not excluded from the results of his keen sense of justice is evidenced in his compelling the city of Venice to release...
INQUISITION – Origin. Court for the punishment of heretics and infidels, established as early as the reigns of the emperors Theodosius and Justinian, though not under that name. Little was heard of this institution until the beginning of the...
INTELLIGENCERS – Persons who supply intelligence or secret information; Stuart English for "spies." A number of crypto-Jews in London supplied Cromwell with "intelligence" in connection with foreign and colonial affairs. In 1655, during the...
INVOCATION – A form of praise or blessing greatly in vogue in medieval Hebrew literature. In ancient times the invocation was an essential part of the various forms of salutation, many instances of which are found in Biblical, and especially...
ISAAC – Member of the embassy sent in 797 by Charlemagne to Harun al-Rashid, calif at Bagdad, probably as interpreter for the ambassadors, who were the noblemen Sigismund and Landfried. Both died on their way back, and Isaac became the...
ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM HA-GORNI – Provençal poet; lived at Luc in the second half of the thirteenth century. He is known in Hebrew literature under the surname of "Gorni," which, as Steinschneider first pointed out, is the Hebrew equivalent of "Aire" (= ). Isaac...
ISAAC BEN ELEAZAR HA-LEVI – German Talmudist and liturgical poet; flourished at Worms; died, according to Abraham Zacuto ("Yuḥasin ha-Shalem," p. 217), in 1070. Zunz says ("Literaturgesch." p. 155) that he died between 1070 and 1096. He was a pupil of R....
ISAAC BEN ELIAKIM OF POSEN – German moralist and author; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was the author of "Leb Ṭob" (Prague, 1620), an ethical work in Judæo-German in twenty chapters. Its popularity may be judged from the fact that it...
ISAAC BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI – Spanish grammarian of the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Sefer ha-Riḳmah," a grammatical treatise still extant in manuscript (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Hebr. MSS., Ancien Fonds, No. 510). As stated in the...
ISAAC IBN JASOS IBN SAḲṬAR – Spanish grammarian; born 982; died at Toledo about 1057-58. He is identified by Steinschneider with the physician Isḥaḳ ibn Ḳasṭar or, as Moses ibn Ezra calls him, Isḥaḳ ibn Saḳṭar ("Z. D. M. G." viii. 551, ix. 838). According...
ISRAELITISCHE WOCHENSCHRIFT FÜR DIE RELIGIÖSEN UND SOCIALEN INTERESSEN DES JUDENTHUMS – Weekly journal, published at Breslau and later at Magdeburg. The first number appeared Jan. 5, 1870; the last toward the close of 1894. It was edited successively by A. Treuenfels and M. Rahmer. Together with the "Wochenschrift"...
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN – Biblical commentator; lived at Constantinople in the middle of the sixteenth century. He was the author of a commentary on Job, published, with the text, at Constantinople in 1545. He wrote also a commentary on Pirḳe Abot, still...
ISAAC DE LEON – One of the last rabbis of Castile; lived at Toledo. He was a native of Leon, and a pupil of Isaac Campanton, and, like Moses de Leon, a cabalist and a believer in miracles. Joseph Caro and others honored him with the title of...
ISAAC BEN LEVI OF PROVENCE – French liturgical poet; flourished in the twelfth century. Among the piyyuṭim for New-Year's Day contained in the Maḥzor of Provence are some which indicate Isaac b. Levi as their author. Zunz ("Z. G." p. 466) supposes that...