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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ISAAC BEN LEVI BEN SAUL OF LUCENA – Spanish grammarian and liturgical poet; flourished in the first half of the eleventh century; a contemporary of Isaac Gikatilla and Isaac ibn Ḥalfon. Isaac is quoted under the name of "Isaac b. Saul" by Ibn Janaḥ in "Ha-Riḳmah"...
ISAAC B. REUBEN ALBARGELONI (ALBARCELONI) – Spanish Talmudist and liturgical poet; born at Barcelona in 1043. He was a judge in the important community of Denia, where he became connected, probably as son-in-law, with ibn Alḥatosh. Among his later descendants was Moses b....
ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF NARBONNE – French scholar; flourished in the first half of the twelfth century. He is quoted in an anonymous commentary to Chronicles, written at Narbonne before 1140, as having given the author verbal explanations of various verses—I...
ISAAC IBN SID (ZAG; ÇAG) – Spanish astronomer; flourished at Toledo in the second half of the thirteenth century. From the surname "haḤazzan," given him by Isaac Israeli ("Yesod'Olam," iv. 30), it may be inferred that he was precentor at the synagogue....
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON – Liturgical poet; lived in Germany in the first half of the fourteenth century; author of the seliḥah "Ani hu ha-Geber," on the martyrs of the persecutions of 1337, which Isaac had witnessed. The signature to this seliḥah...
ISHMAEL – Biblical Data: Eldest son of Abraham by his concubine Hagar; born when Abraham was eighty-six years of age (Gen. xvi. 15, 16). God promised Abraham that His blessing should be upon Ishmael, who, He foretold, would beget twelve...
ISAAC BEN TODROS – Spanish rabbi and Talmudist toward the end of the thirteenth century. He was the teacher of Shem-Ṭob ibn Gaon and Nathan b. Judah, and the friend of Baḥya ben Asher, who mentions him in his Pentateuch commentary (§ Beshallaḥ)....
ISAAC B. TODROS – French physician at Avignon during the second half of the fourteenth century. In 1373 he was the pupil of the astronomer Immanuel b. Jacob of Tarascon and Orange, the author of the "Shesh Kenafayim." Isaac was well read in...
ISAAC TYRNAU – Hungarian rabbi and ritualist; flourished in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He was a pupil of Abraham Klausner of Vienna and of R. Shalom of Neustadt; one of his schoolfellows was Jacob Mölin (MaHaRiL). Grätz concluded...
ISHMAEL BEN PHABI (FIABI) II. – High priest under Agrippa II.; not to be identified (as by Grätz and Schürer) with the high priest of the same name who was appointed by Valerius Gratus and who officiated during 15-16 of the common era. Ishmael was a worthy...
ISIS – Egyptian deity, at whose instigation, it was alleged, the Jews were forced to leave Egypt. Cheremon, the enemy of the Jews, asserted that the goddess Isis had appeared to the Egyptian king Amenophis, and had censured him because...
ISLAMI, 'ABD AL-ḤAḲḲ AḲ- – Jewish convert to Islam; lived at Ceuta, Morocco, in the first half of the fourteenth century. He wrote an Arabic work against the Jews in which the passages that he quotes from the Bible are given in Hebrew, transliterated in...
ISPAHAN – Traditional Founding. City in the district of Jabal, Persia, situated on the Zendarud. The Jews pretend to have founded Ispahan, saying that it was built by the captives whom Nebuchadnezzar transported thither after he had taken...
ISRAEL, JACOB – Russian rabbi and author; flourished 1623-78. He is said to have been born in Temesvar, and to have been rabbi in Belzyce and Lublin; Fürst says in Slutsk also. He was a contemporary of Samuel (Aaron) Keidanover, and perished...
PRESBYTER – From the time of Moses down to the Talmudic period the "zeḳenim" (elders) are mentioned as constituting a regular communal organization, occasionally under the Greek name Gerusia. But the term "presbyter" (πρεσβύτερος) is found...
ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH (the Younger) – Spanish astronomer; flourished at Toledo in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was a pupil of Asher ben Jehiel, at whose request (in 1310) he wrote the astronomical work "Yesod 'Olam," the best contribution on that...
ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON (ABU YA'ḲUB ISḤAḲ IBN SULAIMAN ALISRA'ILI) – African physician and philosopher; born in Egypt before 832; died at Kairwan, Tunis, in 932. These dates are given by most of the Arabic authorities; but Abraham b. Ḥasdai, quoting the biographer Sanaḥ ibn Sa'id al-Ḳurṭubi...
ISRAELIT, DER – Biweekly periodical published in Galicia since 1868. It is the organ of the Shomer Yisrael Association of Lemberg, of which its editorial staff are members; and it represents the liberal and progressive element of the Galician...
ISRAELIT, DER – Formerly, a weekly, now a semiweekly journal published at Mayence, Germany. It was founded in 1860 by M. Lehmann and edited by him up to his decease. Since that time Oskar Lehmann has been the editor. Valuable literary...
ISRAELIT DES NEUNZEHNTEN JAHRHUNDERTS, DER – Periodical published in Germany in the first half of the nineteeth century. It first appeared, from Oct., 1839, up to Oct., 1841, as a monthly in Meiningen. It was then enlarged and issued weekly in Herzfeld from 1842 to June,...
ISRAELITISCHE ANNALEN – Weekly journal; published in Frankfort-on-the-Main. The first number appeared Jan. 4, 1839; it discontinued publication Dec. 24, 1841. The well-known historian Isaac Marcus Jost was its editor. The journal printed Jewish news...
ISRAELITISCHE SCHUL- UND PREDIGERMAGAZIN – Monthly periodical, published in Magdeburg by Ludwig Philippson. It first appeared in 1834, and continued up to the end of 1836. It was the precursor of the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," and contained articles of...
ISRAELITISCHE VOLKSLEHRER – Monthly, published at Frankfort-on-the-Main. It was founded in 1851, and continued to 1862. It was edited by Leopold Stein; in its last years S. Süss-kind, the publisher of the feuilletonistic family journal "Der Freitagabend,"...
ITALY – Kingdom of southern Europe, with a total population of about 32,000,000, in which there are about 34,653 Jews (1901). This country, which the Israelites, punning upon the name, called "I Ṭal Yah" = "the land of the dew of the...
IZATES – Proselyte; King of Adiabene; son of Queen Helena and Monobaz I.; born in the year 1 of the common era; died in 55. While in Charan Spasinu, whither he had been sent by his father, a Jewish merchant named Ananias acquainted him...