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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
LITERATURE, MODERN HEBREW – Modern Hebrew literature (1743-1904), in distinction to that form of Neo-Hebraic literature known as rabbinical literature (see Literature, Hebrew), which is distinctly religious in character, presents itself under a twofold...
LOANS, JACOB BEN JEHIEL – Physician in ordinary to the German emperor Frederick III. (1440-93), and Hebrew teacher of Johann Reuchlin; died at Linz about 1506. Loans rendered lifelongfaithful service to the emperor, by whom he was knighted. At Linz in...
LOBATO – Marano family, several of whose members lived at Amsterdam. The best-known members of the family are:Diego Gomez Lobato (called also Abraham Cohen Lobato): Portuguese Marano; born at Lisbon, where he was living in 1599; cousin...
LOBO, MOSES JESHURUN – Spanish poet; lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth century. He was one of the poets who celebrated the martyrdom of Abraham Nuñez Bernal in 1655; and his elegies form a part of the "Elogios" (Amsterdam, 1655). Daniel de Barrios...
LODÈVE – Small town in the department of Hèrault, France. A Jewish community was founded here as early as the fifth century. It was under the jurisdiction of the bishop, to whom it paid an annual tax. In 1095 Bishop Bernard, in...
LONGO, SAADIA BEN ABRAHAM – Turkish Hebrew poet; lived at Constantinople about the middle of the sixteenth century. A manuscript in the Bodleian Library (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 1986) contains a collection of Longo's poems on various...
LOPEZ – A family of Sephardic Jews several of whom were distinguished for scholarly attainments.Eliahu Lopez: Dutch ḥakam of the seventeenth century. He received his rabbinical education, together with Isaac Nieto and others, in the...
LOPEZ ROSA – Portuguese Marano family of Lisbon, which owned a printing establishment there in 1647.Duarte Lopez Rosa: Physician; born at Beja. Duarte was condemned by the Inquisition at Lisbon (Oct. 10, 1723) as an adherent of Judaism.Moses...
LUCCA – City of Tuscany, Italy. Its Jewish community is known in literature especially through the Kalonymus family of Lucca, whose ancestor saved the life of the German emperor Otto II. after the battle of Cotrone in Calabria (982),...
LUCENA – City near Cordova, Spain, magnificently situated, and surrounded by strong walls and wide moats. In early times it was inhabited almost exclusively by Jews who had arrived together with its founders; hence it was called "Jews'...
LUCERNE – City of Switzerland, in the canton of the same name. Jews were living there as early as the middle of the thirteenth century. The earliest records of the town contain regulations for the sale of the flesh of animals slaughtered...
LUCUAS – Toward the end of the reign of the emperor Trajan, in 116, the Jews of Cyrene rebelled, their leader being Lucuas according to Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." iv. 2), Andreias according to Dio Cassius (lxviii. 32). These two statements...
LUNEL – Chief town of the department of Hérault, France; at times it is called and (see Zerahiah Gerundi, preface to "Ma'or," and I. de Lattes, "Sha'are Ẓiyyon," p. 75). The Jewish community here is an ancient one; important in the...
LUPERIO (LUPERCIO), ISAAC – A Jew, perhaps a Marano, of Spanish descent; lived at Smyrna. His apology, written in Spanish and directed against a monk at Seville, and an interpretation by him of Daniel's "seventy weeks," entitled "Apoloxia Repuesta y...
LYSIMACHUS – Anti-Jewish Alexandrian writer; lived before Apion. Like the Stoic Chæremon, he went beyond even Manetho in his inimical account of the exodus of the Jews from Egypt. According to Lysimachus, the Jews, numbering 110,000, left...
MA'ALI IBN HIBAT ALLAH, ABU AL- – Egyptian physician; lived at Fusṭaṭ (Cairo) at the end of the twelfth century. He was the physician of Salaḥ al-Din (Saladin) and, after the death of the latter, of his brother Al-Malik al-'Adil. Ibn Abi Uṣaibi'ah, in his...
MA'ARABI, NAHUM – Moroccan Hebrew poet and translator of the thirteenth century ("Ma'arabi," "Maghrabi" = "the western" or "the Moroccan"). His poems are found only in Moroccan collections. Two of them, of a liturgic character, were published by...
MACCABÆAN, THE – Monthly magazine of Jewish life and literature published in New York; established Oct., 1901, as the outcome of a resolution unanimously passed at a convention of the societies affiliated with the Federation of American...
MACEDONIA – Country of southeastern Europe; now a part of the Turkish empire. It is the native country of Alexander the Great, who is, therefore, called "Alexander the Macedonian" in rabbinical writings. In Dan. xi. 30 the Macedonians are...
MACHÆRUS – Mountain fortress in Peræa, on the boundary between Palestine and Arabia. Alexander Jannæus first built a fortification there (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 6, § 2). His wife Salome Alexandra turned over to the Sadducean party all the...
MAGDALA – Town in Palestine in the province of Galilee; probably the birthplace of Mary Magdalene. There is a Talmudic sentence which declares that Magdala was destroyed (by the Romans) on account of its immorality (Lam. R. ii. 2). Jesus...
MAḲRE DARDEḲE – Name given in the Middle Ages to Hebrew glossaries primarily intended for the use of students of the Bible; its literal meaning is "teacher of children." The first and most noteworthy work of this kind is the one published at...
MALAGA – Spanish Mediterranean seaport; capital of the province of Malaga; said to have been founded by the Phenicians. Malaga was an important place of commerce in the time of the Romans and had Jewish inhabitants at a very early date....
MALEA (MALEHA; MELEA), MEÏR DE – Almoxarif mayor"; chief farmer of taxes of King Ferdinand III. (the Holy) of Castile, whose favor he gained through his honesty and zeal in the interest of the state. Don Meïr, who was versed in the Talmud and was held in high...
MANASSEH – 1. The elder of two sons born before the famine to Joseph and Osnath, daughter of the priest of Heliopolis (Gen. xli. 50-51, xlvi. 20). Biblical etymology, deriving his name from (= "to forget"), makes it signify "He who causes...