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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Goodman Lipkind, B.A.

Rabbi, New York City.

Contributions:
ABENDANA, ISAAC – Teacher of Hebrew at Oxford University. Born about the middle of the seventeenth century; died about 1710. He was a brother of the celebrated Jacob Abendana, the distinguished Spanish physician and ḥakam. Having lived at Hamburg...
ABRAHAM, ABRAHAM – English author and communal worker; died March 31, 1863, at Liverpool. He resided at Liverpool for forty years, during thirty of which he took a leading part in the Jewish affairs of that city; holding various honorary offices...
ABRAHAM, PHINEHAS – West Indian merchant; born in the island of Jamaica about the beginning of the nineteenth century; and died Feb. 19, 1887. He was one of the last survivors of the body of West Indian merchants who contributed in a high degree to...
ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM – Writer on sheḥiṭah (laws of ritualistic killing of animals); born at Siedlce in Poland, December, 1801, and died at Jerusalem, January 23, 1880. He was familiarly known as Rabbi Abraham, and for nearly half a century he...
ABRAHAMS, BARNETT – Dayyan, or assistant rabbi, of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation of London, England, and principal of Jews' College. He was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1831, and died in London, November 15, 1863. Abrahams was educated at...
ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL – English author and teacher; born in London, November 26, 1858; son of Barnett Abrahams. He received his education at Jews' College, of which his father was principal, and at University College, London. He received the degree of...
ABRAHAMS, LOUIS BARNETT – Head master of the Jews' Free School, London; born at Swansea, South Wales, 1842. He was educated in the Jews' School at Manchester, whither his family had removed in 1845. In 1854 he was indentured to Moses Angel at the Jews'...
ABRAMS, HARRIET – English soprano vocalist and composer; born 1760; died in the first half of the nineteenth century. She was the eldest of three sisters (Harriet, Theodosia, and Eliza), all excellent vocalists. Harriet herself was a pupil of Dr....
ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN – Lawyer, and collector of Hebrew manuscripts; born at London, 1861; son of Chief Rabbi Nathan Adler. His early training was obtained successively in the City of London School and at University College, London. Mr. Adler spent...
ADLER, HERMANN – Chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British empire; born in the city of Hanover, May, 1839; second son of Nathan Marcus Adler; educated at University College School and University College, London. He studied at...
ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS – Chief rabbi of the British empire; born in the city of Hanover, Germany, January 15, 1803; died at Brighton, England, on January 21, 1890. He was the third son of Marcus Baer Adler, chief rabbi of Hanover. He came from a Jewish...
AGUILAR, EPHRAIM LOPEZ PEREIRA, BARON D' – Second Baron d'Aguilar; born in Vienna in 1739; died at London, 1802. In 1757 he was naturalized in England, where he had settled with his father. He married in 1758 the daughter of Moses Mendes da Costa, who is reported to have...
ALEX, EPHRAIM – Founder of the Jewish Board of Guardians, London; born in Cheltenham, 1800; died in London, Nov. 13, 1882. He was a successful business man, which fact eminently fitted him for the great charitable work to which he chiefly...
ALEXANDER, LIONEL LINDO – Political and communal worker; born in London May 14, 1852; died Jan. 31, 1901. He was educated at the St. Marylebone's and City of London schools. For nine years (1884-92) he filled the position of honorary secretary to the...
ALEXANDER, MAURICE ALEXANDER – An Australian politician; born in London, Nov. 30, 1820; died in Sydney, N. S. W., January 27, 1874. He arrived in Sydney in 1834, and from the year 1863 represented Goulburn in the New South Wales House of Assembly. He acquired...
ALEXANDER, MICHAEL SOLOMON – First Anglican bishop of Jerusalem; born of Jewish parents at Schönlanke, in the grand duchy of Posen, May, 1799; died at Belbeis, Egypt, November 23, 1845. His training was strictly orthodox, and at the age of sixteen he became...
ALEXANDER, SAMUEL – Metaphysician and psychologist; born in Sydney, New South Wales, July 6, 1859. He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne, after which he attended the Melbourne University, where he made an excellent academic record, and in...
ALMOSNINO – A distinguished Jewish family originally dwelling in Aragon. The name, according to Jellinek (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 6430), is derived from the Arabic and denotes "an orator." The following members of the family...
ANGEL, MOSES – Headmaster of the London Jews' Free School; born April 29, 1819, and died at London, in 1898. He received his early training at H. N. Solomon's boarding-school at Hammersmith and entered University College School at the age of...
ARTOM, BENJAMIN – Chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of London; born at Asti, Italy, in 1835; died at Brighton, near London, Jan. 6, 1879. He was left fatherless when a child, and his maternal uncle supervised his early...
ASCHER, JOSEPH – Composer and pianist; born at Groningen, Holland, June 4, 1829; died in London, June 20, 1869. He was a son of Simon Ascher, reader of the Great Synagogue, London, and studied music under Moscheles, whom he followed to the...
ASCHER, SIMON – azan; born in Holland, 1789; died at London December, 1872. He was reader and cantor of the Great Synagogue, London, for a period of thirty-seven years. With the aid of Mombach, the well-known composer, he may be said to have...
ASHENHEIM, LOUIS – Scotch physician and surgeon; born at Edinburgh 1817; died at Jamaica Nov. 26, 1858. Educated in his native city, he obtained honors at the university, and became a licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. He...
AVIGDOR, ELIM D' – Engineer and communal worker (died in London Feb. 9, 1895); was the eldest son of Count Salamon Henri d'Avigdor and of Rachel, second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid. He was educated at University College, London, and the...
AVIGDOR, RACHEL, COUNTESS D' – Communal worker at London, England; born Sept. 19, 1816; died Nov. 5, 1896. She was the second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon and Isabel Goldsmid, and was privately educated by some of the most eminent teachers of the time,...