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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
AARON MARKOVICH OF WILNA – Agent (court Jew) of King Ladislaus IV. of Poland in the seventeenth century. The only known document in which his name occurs is a letter, dated January 11, 1638, in the official correspondence between the Russian and Polish...
ABBA GLUSK LECZEKA – A poem by Adalbert von Chamisso, published in 1832. It relates the story of one Abba, who, at the age of sixty, attracted by the fame of Moses Mendelssohn, went to Berlin to acquire secular knowledge. In his native town, Glusk,...
ABELMAN, ILIA SOLOMONOVICH – A Russian astronomer; born at Dünaburg, now Dvinsk, in 1866; died at Wilna, December 29, 1898. His early education was received at the gymnasium of Riga, whence he graduated in 1887, gaining the gold medal. He proceeded to the...
ABO – Capital of the government of Abo-Björneborg in Finland, Russia, situated near the entrance of the Auraioki river into the Gulf of Bothnia.Formerly no Jews were permitted to live in Abo, owing to the Swedish law of 1782, which...
ABRAHAM (ABRAM), JACOB – German medalist and lapidary; born at Strelitz in 1723; died at Berlin, June 17, 1800. He learned the art of engraving from a workman in the Polish town of Lissa. For nearly half a century he worked in the royal mints of Stettin...
ABRAHAM OF BOHEMIA – Prefect of the Jews of Great and Little Poland at the beginning of the sixteenth century. In 1512 King Sigismund I. of Poland issued a decree notifying his subjects in Great Poland and Little Poland that he had appointed...
ABRAHAM JESOFOVICH – Secretary of the treasury of Lithuania under King Sigismund I. of Poland; born in the middle of the fifteenth century; died at Brest-Litovsk, 1519. When Alexander Jagellon expelled the Jews from Lithuania in 1495 (from which...
ABRAHAM MALAK – Russian rabbi; only son of Dob Baer of Mezhirich, who was the first leader of the South Russian Ḥasidim; follower of Ba'al Shem-Ṭob, and son-in-law of Meshullam Phœbus of Kremenetz; died, while comparatively young, at Fastov, a...
ABRAHAM PROCHOWNIK – A legendary personage said to have been nominated prince of Poland, in 842, under the following circumstances: After the death of Prince Popiel, the Poles held a council at Krushwitz, to elect a successor. They disagreed for a...
ABRAHAM SHMOILOVICH – A Lithuanian merchant known also as "The Honorable Sir Abraham, the Jew of Turisk," who flourished at the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century. His name figures in the books of the Brest-Litovsk...
ABRAHAMSON, DAVID – German physician; born in Danzig, 1740; died there in 1800. He studied medicine at Königsberg, and from 1775 practised his profession at Hasenpoth in Kurland. Shortly before his death he returned to his birthplace. He published...
ABRAMOVICH, MIKHAIL SOLOMONOVICH – Russian poet, son of Solomon (Shalom) Abramovich; born at Berditchev in 1859, and educated at the Gymnasium of Jitomir. At the age oftwenty he went to St. Petersburg, only for a short time. Being implicated in a revolutionary...
ABRAMSON, ARTHUR VON – Russian civil engineer; born at Odessa, March 3, 1854. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native city, and studied mathematics at the University of Odessa, which he left to take a course in civil engineering at the...
ABRAMSON, BERNARD – Russian physician of the nineteenth century. He was a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Science, and for valued work in sanitation was made a hereditary honorary citizen by the Russian government. Owing to...
ABRASS, JOSHUA (OSIAS) – A famous ḥazan, or cantor; born in Austria about 1820, and died at Odessa in 1883. He was cantor in Tarnopol, 1840-42; afterward in Lemberg, 1842-60; and from 1860-83 he was chief cantor of the great synagogue of Odessa. He...
ACOSTA, JOAN D' – Jester at the court of Peter the Great of Russia in the first half of the eighteenth century. Originally he was a broker at Hamburg, but met with such small success that he removed to Russia, and received an appointment as...
ADALBERG, SAMUEL – Polish author; born at Warsaw in 1868. He published "Liber Proverbiorum Polonicorum cum Adagiis ac Tritioribus Dictis ad instar Proverbiorum Usitatis," Warsaw, 1889-94. This work, containing forty thousand proverbs, is the...
ADLER, HELENE – German teacher and writer; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1849, in the same house in which Ludwig Börne was born, and which was the property of her father, who was one of the minor officers of the Jewish community of...
AFANASYEV-CHUZHBINSKI, ALEXANDER STEPANOVICH – Christian Russian author and ethnographer (1817-75); he was an enlightened writer who did justice to the Jews. In his "Poyezdka v Yuzhnuyu Rossiyu" (2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1861-63) he gave a faithful picture of Jewish life in...
AFFRAS RACHMAELOVICH – A Jewish merchant of Mohilev and Riga, who lived about the end of the sixteenth century. Affras figured prominently in Lithuania as an importer of miscellaneous merchandise, and in White Russia as a farmer of taxes and...
AGGEI, THE PROUD KING – The original idea of the legend concerning the Proud King Aggei, which appears in various forms in folk-lore, is found also in the Talmud, the Midrashim, and the Targum. The Russian version, as rendered by Garshin, reads as...
AGRICULTURAL COLONIES IN PALESTINE – Since the dispersion of the Jews from their native land, many efforts have been made to induce them to return to Palestine and engage in agriculture. Probably the first of these to lead to any practical result occurred in the...
AGRICULTURAL COLONIES IN RUSSIA – The idea of colonizing the Jews as agriculturists in Russia originated with the Polish historian Czacki and Nathan Nata (Notkin), who in turn inspired the poet Derzhavin, whom Emperor Paul sent to White Russia in 1799 to...
AHALI-TAURAT – The name adopted by the Persian Jews of Hamadan, Demavend, Teheran, and other districts, in contra-distinction to Persian Jews of Indian origin, who are called "Israeli." They are not, however, remarkable for their knowledge of...
AḤMED PASHA – Turkish vizier and viceroy of Egypt under Solyman II., the Magnificent (1520-1566). He received these honors as rewards for valor displayed at the conquest of Rhodes (1523). But Aḥmed had hoped to be made grand vizier, and in...