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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
AKHALTZYK – A fortified town of Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis, on an affluent of the Kur, 110 miles west of Tiflis. Of the 26,000 inhabitants about 3,000 are Jews; some of thembeing very old settlers, while others emigrated...
AKKERMAN – District, town, and village in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, on the right bank of the Dniester estuary, twenty-seven miles southwest of Odessa. The Jewish population in the town in 1897 was 4,846, in the village 1,136,...
AKSAI (TASHKICHA) – A village in the province of Tersk, in the Caucasus, which has a Jewish community of about 1,000 persons. These Jews claim to be descendants of the exiles of Shalmaneser. Their progenitors emigrated in early days from Persia to...
AKSAKOV, IVAN SERGYEYEVICH – Russian Panslavist leader; born October 7, 1823; died at Moscow, February 8, 1886. Aksakov was one of the founders at Moscow of a circle of Slavophils, whose aim was to restore Russia to the position it had held in the days...
AKSENFELD, ISRAEL – A Judæo-German writer; born in Russia in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; died about 1868. He passed the first period of his life among the Ḥasidim, being himself a disciple of R. Naḥman Bratzlaver (of Bratzlav) and...
ALEKSANDRIA – District, town, and village in the government of Kherson, Russia, on the Inguletz river. In 1897 the Jewish population was: district, 3,857; town, 4,794; village, 1,916. The town has two synagogues and two schools. H. R....
ALEKSANDROVSK – District and town in the government of Ekaterinoslav, Russia, on the left bank of the Dnieper, below the rapids. In 1897 the Jewish population of the town was 884, and of the district 5,316. The Jewish community has two...
ALEKSEI – Russian archpriest; convert to Judaism; born probably in Novgorod, 1425; died in Moscow, 1488. In the last quarter of the fifteenth century, when a schism arose in the Russian Orthodox Church and many new sects sprang up,...
ALEKSYEYEV, ALEKSANDER – Author and convert to the Greek Catholic Church; born in 1820, at Nazarinetz, government of Podolsk, Russia, of poor Jewish parents. At the age of ten he was impressed into military service by the press-gang (poimshchiki) of...
ALEXANDER I., PAVLOVICH, Emperor of Russia – Born at St. Petersburg, Dec. 23, 1777; died at Taganrog, Dec. 1, 1825. During his reign (1801-25) more measures for internal reform were inaugurated than under any of his predecessors, from the days of Peter the Great (died...
ALEXANDER II., NIKOLAIEVICH, Emperor of Russia – His Reforms. Born at St. Petersburg, April 29, 1818; assassinated there March 13, 1881. He succeeded his father, Nicholas I., March 2, 1855, before the end of the Crimean war, and when peace was concluded reforms of all kinds...
ALEXANDER III., ALEXANDROVICH, Emperor of Russia – His Reactionary Tendencies. Born at St. Petersburg, March 10, 1845; died at Livadia, Nov. 1, 1894. He ascended the throne March 14, 1881, the day after the assassination of his father, Alexander II. The terrible fate of the...
ALEXANDER JAGELLON – Instability of His Character. Grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland; born 1460; died at Wilna, 1506. He was the son of King Casimir IV. He ascended the throne of Lithuania in 1492, and that of Poland upon the death of his...
ALEXIS MIKHAILOVICH – Second czar of the Romanof dynasty; born at Moscow, March 29, 1629; died February 9, 1676. He succeeded his father, Michael Fiodorovich, July 26, 1645. During his reign a considerable number of Jews lived in Moscow and the...
ALLUFE HA-ḳ;EHILLAH – A general name for prominent members of any congregation, and typically used in regard to the leaders of the community in the old kahals (governing boards) of the Jews of Poland and Lithuania. The number of these leaders varied...
ALTARAS, JACQUES ISAAC – French ship-builder and philanthropist; born in Aleppo, Syria, in 1786, and died at Aix (Department of Bouchesdu-Rhône, France), Jan. 30, 1873. He was the son of a rabbi in Palestine, and left Jerusalem in 1806 to engage in...
ALUPKA – Village on the southern shores of the Crimea, Russia; mentioned in the letter of Joseph, king of the Chazars, to Ḥasdai ibn-Shaprut about 960) as one of the cities tributary to the Chazars.Bibliography: A. Harkavy, Soobshcheniya...
ALUSHTA – Village on the southeastern shore of the Crimea, in the district of Yalta, Russia. Some ruins exist of the fort Aluston built there by Emperor Justinian in the sixth century. Under the name of Aluss the place is mentioned in the...
AMADIA, AMADIAH, AMADIEH, AMADEEYAH – A town in Asiatic Turkey, vilayet of Bagdad, north of Mosul, the birthplace of the pseudo-Messiah, David Alrui (Alroy). In 1163, according to the author of "'Emeḳ ha-Baka," it had a Jewish population of about a thousand...
AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS – Roman historian; born at Antioch, Syria, about 320; died about 395. He wrote a history of Rome, from Nerva to Valens, in which the Jews are mentioned in Books XIV. ch. viii.; XXII. ch. v.; XXIII. ch. i.; XXIV. ch. iv. It is...
ANANYEV – District, town, and village in the province of Kherson, Russia. In 1897 the Jewish population was: in the town 7,650 (50 per cent.); in the village 4,408 (34.9 per cent.); and in the district 4,555 (3.7 per cent.). There are...
ANAPA – Town in the province of Kuban, Russia, on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Jews are said to have lived here in the first century, and to have had a synagogue.Bibliography: Harkavy, in Voskhod, March, 1894, p. 54.H. R....
ANBAL (AMBAL) THE JASSIN (OSSETE) – Among the many foreigners who held positions at the court of Prince Andrei Bogolyubski, in Kiev, toward the end of the twelfth century, were two of Jewish origin: (1) Ephraim Moisich, or Moisievich, who had gained the prince's...
ANDI – One of the wild Lesghian tribes of the province of Tersk (Terek) and northern Daghestan. Like the Tabassarans and other Caucasian tribes, the Andi claim to be of Israelitish origin. They number about 20,000, and were conquered...
ANDRONICUS COMNENUS – Byzantine emperor; born in 1113; assassinated at Constantinople in 1185; reigned in 1183-85. He wrote a book against the Jews and their religion, with the object of converting them to Christianity.Bibliography: Le Beau, Histoire...