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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BERSHAD – Town in the district of Olgopol, province of Podolia, Russia, on the road between Olgopol and Balta, at the rivers Dakhna and Bershadka. In 1900 the Jewish population was 4,500, out of a total population of 7,000. The Jewish...
BERSHADSKI, SERGEI ALEKSANDROVICH – Russian historian and jurist; born at Berdyansk March 30, 1850; died in St. Petersburg 1896. He graduated from the Gymnasium of Kerch in 1868, and from the University of Odessa in 1872; lectured at the University of St....
BERSHADSKY, ISAIAH – Russian novelist; born in Saimoscha, near Slonim, government of Grodno, 1874; now a teacher in Yekaterinoslav. Bershadsky is one of the youngest Neo-Hebraic writers of fiction in Russia, and one of whom much may be expected. His...
BERSOHN, MATHIAS – Polish bibliographer, archeologist, and writer on fine arts; born at Warsaw 1826. He is the owner of a choice library which contains a valuable collection of rare books and manuscripts. Among other works he wrote: (1) "W....
BERTENSOHN, BERNARD – Russian teacher and translator; born at Odessa at the end of the eighteenth century; died there 1859. He received a careful education in the school of Basilius Stern, and for many years was a teacher of languages in Odessa....
BERTENSOHN, JOSEPH VASILIEVICH – Russian court-physician; born at Nikolaiev, government of Kherson, in 1835. He received his early education at the gymnasium of Odessa, whence he was graduated in 1849; studied at the Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa, at the...
BERTENSOHN, LEV BERNARDOVICH – Russian physician; born at Odessa Aug. 10, 1850; son of Bernard and nephew of Joseph Bertensohn. He graduated in 1867 from the Larin Gymnasium, St. Petersburg, and in 1872 from the St. Petersburg Medical Academy. He was assigned...
BERTENSOHN, VASILI ALEKSEYEVICH – Russian agriculturist; born in Odessa Sept. 12, 1860. He belongs to the hereditary nobility, his father, Dr. Aleksei Vasilievich Bertensohn, having been a state councilor and knight of the Order of St. Vladimir. Vasili graduated...
BESSARABIA – Government in southwest Russia; separated by the Pruth and Danube from Rumania on the west, by the Dniester from Podolia and Kherson on the north and east, and bordering on the Black Sea from the Sulina mouth of the Danube to...
BESSARABIA – Government in southwest Russia; separated by the Pruth and Danube from Rumania on the west, by the Dniester from Podolia and Kherson on the north and east, and bordering on the Black Sea from the Sulina mouth of the Danube to...
BEZALEL BEN SOLOMON OF KOBRYN – Preacher at Slutzk, government of Minsk, Russia; later at Boskowitz, Moravia; died before 1659. He was the author of the following works: (1) "'Amudeah Shib'ah" (Her Columns Are Seven), containing homilies on the Bible; divided...
BIBIKOV, DMITRI GAVRILOVICH – Russian soldier, administrator, and statesman; born 1792; died 1870. In 1837 Bibikov was appointed military governor of Kiev, and governor-general of Volhynia and Podolia. During the fifteen years of his administration of the...
BIBLEITZY (BIBLISTS) – Name given to a body of religious reformers, organized in the spring of 1882 among the Jewish working classes of Elizabethgrad, South Russia, subsequent to the riots against the Jews. The founders of the brotherhood, believing...
BIEGELEISEN, HENRY – Polish critic and author; born 1855 in Galicia. He studied at the universities of Lemberg, Munich, and Leipsic, receiving from the last named the degree of doctor of philology for his treatise, "Characteristik Trembecki's, ein...
BIELGORAJ – A district town in the government of Lublin, Russian Poland. According to the "Zuk ha-'Ittim," during the uprising of the Cossacks under Chmielnicki (1648-49), all the Jews of Bielgoraj were killed, among them Rabbi Hirsch,...
BIELTZY – District town of the government of Bessarabia, Russia. At the census of 1897 the population was 18,526, including over ten thousand Jews, most of them engaged in handicrafts, but some in agriculture and commerce. There were at...
BIENSTOK, LEV MOISEIEVICH – Russian writer, educationist, and communal worker; born April 6, 1836, at Lukachi, government of Volhynia; died Oct. 22, 1894, at Jaffa, Palestine. He received his first education in the ḥeder and in the Russian public school at...
BIKHAKHANIM – Reigning princess of the Taman peninsula, Crimea. She was married in 1419 to the Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through this marriage became possessor of that country, where one of his heirs, Zacharias de Guizolfi, was...
BIRZHI – District of Poniwiezh, government of Kovno. The population of 1,500 includes 600 Jews, the majority of whom are engaged in handicrafts. The traditional Jewish charity is here developed in the highest degree; the philanthropic...
BLANC, PIOTR – Polish financier of the eighteenth century; court banker under King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski (1764-95); date and place of birth unknown; died at Warsaw in 1797. Together with the bankers Dekert and Raffalowitsh he formed...
BLAUSTEIN, OZER – Russian teacher, and writer in Russian and Judæo-German; born at Dünaburg in 1840; died in Warsaw April 27, 1899. His Russian grammar was recommended for Jewish public schools by the Ministry of Public Instruction. He is the...
BLIOCH (BLOCH), IVAN STANISLAVOVICH – Receives Public Recognition. Russo-Polish financier, economist, and railway contractor; distinguished as an advocate of universal peace; born at Radom, Poland, July 24, 1836; died at Warsaw Dec. 25, 1901. He attended the...
BLUMENFELD, FEITEL (FADEI) – Russian rabbi; born in 1826; died at Kherson Dec. 4, 1896. He graduated from the rabbinical college at Jitomir, and for about forty years officiated as rabbi in Kherson and in the Jewish agricultural colonies of Kherson and...
BLUMENFELD, HERMANN FADEYEVICH – Russian lawyer, son of Feitel (Fadei); born in Kherson Sept. 2, 1861; received his education at the high school of his birthplace. He was graduated in 1883 from the New-Russian University of Odessa, which awarded him a gold...
BLUMENFELD, J. C. – Polish litterateur and revolutionist; born about 1810; died before 1840. Blumenfeld was one of the leaders of a band of young Poles concerned in the Polish revolution of 1831. The rising having proved a failure, Blumenfeld fled...