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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
DUKES, LEOPOLD – Hungarian historian of Jewish literature; born at Presburg, Hungary, 1810; died at Vienna Aug. 3, 1891. He studied Talmudical literature in the yeshibah of Moses Sofer, rabbi of Presburg; but his passion for Biblical studies,...
DYHERNFURTH – Town in Prussian Silesia, with 1,463 inhabitants; founded Jan. 20, 1663. In that year the Austrian emperor Leopold I., desiring to reward the Silesian chancellor, Baron von Dyhern, gave his estate Przig the rights and status of...
ELDAD BEN MAHLI HA-DANI – Merchant and traveler of the ninth century. He professed to have been a citizen of an independent Jewish state in eastern Africa, inhabited by the tribes of Dan (hence his name, "ha-Dani" = "the Danite"), Asher, Gad, and...
ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS OF WORMS – Talmudist and cabalist; born, probably at Mayence, about 1176; died at Worms in 1238. He was a descendant of the great Kalonymus family of Mayence, and a disciple of Judah he-Ḥasid, who initiated him into the study of the...
ELHANAN HENDEL (HAENLE) BEN BENJAMIN WOLF KIRCHHAN – Ethical writer; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the end of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. Elhanan published in Judæo-German an ethical work, "Simḥat ha-Nefesh" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1707). The...
ELIAKIM BEN ABRAHAM – Cabalist and grammarian; lived at London in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. His works are: "'Asarah Ma'amarot," a collection of ten essays; "Milḥamot Adonai," on philosophy and religion; "Binah la-'Ittim," on the...
ELIAKIM GOTTSCHALK OF ROTHENBURG – German Talmudist; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was a descendant of Meïr of Rothenburg, and, according to Michael, the son of Raphael ben Eliakim of Rothenburg. If Michael is correct, Eliakim was identical...
ELIAKIM BEN NAPHTALI – Italian ethical writer; lived in the fifteenth century; author of "Ṭob Shem. Ṭob," selections from the Talmud and Midrashim, treating of the retribution, the suffering in the tomb, and the resurrection. The work, divided into 11...
ELIANO, VITTORIO – Jewish convert to Christianity; grandson of Elijah Levita; lived in Italy in the sixteenth century; became priest and canon. Well versed in Hebrew literature, he was appointed censor of Hebrew books, first at Cremona, afterward...
ELIEZER – 1. Servant of Abraham; mentioned by name only in Gen. xv. 2, a passage which presents some difficulties. Eliezer is described by Abraham as (R. V. "possessor of my house") and as (R. V. "Dammesek-Eliezer"). According to Eduard...
ELIEZER THE ASTRONOMER – German scholar of the sixteenth century; author of "Ge Ḥizzayon," an astrological compilation fromHebrew, Arabic, and Latin sources (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2066). He quotes Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi, Ibn Ezra,...
ELIEZER ISAAC COHEN BEN ABRAHAM ASHKENAZI OF VITERBO – Italian physician and Talmudic authority; born at Rome at the beginning of the sixteenth century; died, probably at Sienna, Oct. 16, 1590. He was a brother-in-law of the physician and Talmudist David de Pomis, and, like him,...
ELIEZER LIEPMANN BEN JUDAH LÖB LEVI BRODY – Cabalist of Galicia in the eighteenth century; author of two cabalistic commentaries: one on the Psalms, "Migdal Dawid," with a general introduction under the title "Ṭal Orot," published together with the text, Vienna, 1792: and...
ELIEZER OF TOUQUES – French tosafist; lived at Touques in the second half of the thirteenth century. He abridged the tosafot of Samson of Sens, Samuel of Evreux, and many others, and added thereto marginal notes of his own, entitled "Gilyon...
ELIEZER BEN ZEEB WOLF – Russian rabbi; lived about the middle of the eighteenth century. He was the author of two works: (1) "Imre Shefer," containing sermons, Poryck, 1786; and (2) "Dammeseḳ Eli'ezer," containing novellæ on Talmud and Tosafot, ethical...
ELIJAH BEN KALONYMUS – Talmudical scholar; lived at Lublin in the seventeenth century. He was the author of a commentary on the Pentateuch, entitled "Adderet Eliyahu," published at, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1649.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl....
ELIJAH BEN SAMUEL BEN PARNES OF STEPHANOW – Bulgarian exegete and poet; lived in the second half of the fifteenth century, probably first at Widdin, and later at Constantinople. He maintained a correspondence on scientific subjects with Moses Capsali, Elijah Mizraḥi, and...
EMANATION – The doctrine that all existing things have been produced not by any creative power, but as successive outflowings from the God-head, so that all finite creatures are part and parcel of the Divine Being. This pantheistic...
EMPEDOCLES OF AGRIGENTUM – Greek philosopher and disciple of Pythagoras; flourished in the fifth century B.C.Empedocles' system, modified by the Neoplatonic school, entered into Arabic philosophy, and found exponents among the Jewish philosophers of Spain...
EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIN L', OF OPPIJCK – Professor of theology and Oriental languages; born at Bremen July, 1591; died at Leyden July 1, 1648. His father, Antonius Cæsar, driven from his native country by religious persecution, went to Holland. Constantin graduated in...
EN SOF – Cabalistic term for the Deity prior to His self-manifestation in the production of the world, probably derived from Ibn Gabirol's term," the Endless One" (she-en lo tiklah). It was first used by Azriel ben Menahem, who, sharing...
ENCYCLOPEDIA – A work containing information on all subjects, or exhaustive of one subject, arranged in systematic, usually alphabetical, order. Such works were not unknown in the Orient. Among Greek and Syriac Christians they were based upon...
ENDINGEN – Town of Baden, near Freiburg, famous in Jewish history through the blood accusationof 1470. In that year three Jews were burned at the stake upon a charge of having murdered eight years previously a Christian family of four...
EPHRAEM SYRUS – Church father; born at Nisibis, Syria (whence his surname "Syrus"), or at Edessa, at the beginning of the fourth century. His numerous writings include Syriac commentaries on the Pentateuch and on most of the historical and...
EPHRAIM – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Joseph. The name is connected with the root ("to be fruitful": Gen. xli. 52). He was the younger of the two sons born to Joseph before the famine, Manasseh being the elder (Gen. xli. 51). Nevertheless,...