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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
EPHRAIM BEN JOSEPH OF CHELM (JAMBROWER) – Polish liturgist; born at Chelm, Poland, at the end of the sixteenth century; died at Wreshna, Poland, about 1650. His father, rabbi at Jambrower, Poland, entrusted his education to David ben Jacob of Szczebrszyn. After residing...
EPHRAIM SOLOMON BEN AARON OF LENCZIZA – Rabbi and popular preacher at Prague; born probably at Lencziza, Poland; died at Prague March 3, 1619. After having filled the office of rosh yeshibah at Lemberg, he was appointed in 1604 rabbi of Prague, and remained in this...
ERFURT – Earliest Mention. Chief town of the district of the same name in Prussian Saxony, situated on the Gera. If the dates on the tombstones found in Erfurt are genuine, there existed in that city an organized Jewish community in the...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the...
EUPATORIA – Town in the government of Taurida; on the western coast of the Crimea. It was formerly called by the Tatars "Gezelew" (in Hebrew ), pronounced "Kozlow" by the Russians; but on its annexation to Russia in 1784 it received its...
EUSEBIUS – Bishop of Cæsarea and the "father of Church history"; born about 270. Though animated by zeal for the conversion of the Jews, he often gives evidence of his bitter dislike of them. In his "Demonstratio Evangelica," which is a...
EUTOLEMUS – Name borne by a number of Palestinian Jews. R. Jose quotes in reference to several halakic questions the testimony of a certain "Eutolemus," who gave a decision in the name of five elders (R. H. 15a; Suk. 40a; 'Er. 35a), and...
EZEKIELUS – Alexandrine poet; flourished in the second century B.C. He dramatized Biblical episodes in Greek hexameters. Four fragments of one of his dramas, representing the Exodus (Εξαγωγή) have been preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus...
EZOBI, ELIEZER BEN ḤANAN – Provençal poet; lived at Béziers in the thirteenth century. He was the brother of Joseph EZOBI, and a contemporary of Abraham Bedersi, with whom he exchanged poems. His productions include a didactic poem of thirty strophes on...
EZOBI, JOSEPH BEN ḤANAN BEN NATHAN – Liturgical poet; lived at Perpignan in the thirteenth century. He was the author of thefollowing: (1) three liturgical poems, the first on the Feast of Pentecost, the second (found in the Avignon ritual), on the ten martyrs...
EZOBI, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH – Rabbi at Carpentras, Leghorn, and Florence; born at Sofia, Bulgaria, in the sixteenth century; died in Italy about 1650. While officiating as rabbi of Carpentras (1620-35) he instructed Jean Plantavit de la Pause, Bishop of...
EZRA THE SCRIBE – Biblical Data: A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( : Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The...
EZRA THE PROPHET OF MONCONTOUR – French tosafist; flourished in the thirteenth century. The title "prophet" is, according to Zunz, an honorific one. It is possible that his French name was "Profiat," which was translated into Hebrew as "Nabi" (= "Prophet")....
FALAQUERA (PALQUERA), SHEM-ṬOB BEN JOSEPH – Spanish philosopher and poet: born 1225; died after 1290. He was well versed in Arabic and Greek philosophy, and had a fine critical sense. Falaquera unfortunately gives no informationconcerning his own personality. He was the...
FARAJ BEN SALIM – Charles of Anjou Presenting Arabic Manuscript to Faraj for Translation.(From an illumination by Friar Giovanni in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.)Italian physician and translator; flourished in the second half of the...
FARAJI, JACOB AL- – Rabbi at Alexandria, Egypt, in the middle of the seventeenth century; brother-in-law of Shabbethai Nawawi, rabbi of Rashid, and teacher of Samuel Laniado. Al-Faraji was the author of responsa, extracts from which were...
FATALISM – The doctrine that every event is predestined and must inevitably take place. According to Josephus, the question of fate—or rather, as he really means, of divine predestination—was one of the points in which the Pharisees...
FEINBERG, SOLOMON – Russian financier and philanthropist; born at Yurburg, near Kovno, in 1821; died at Königsberg, Prussia, May 21, 1893. He settled at Königsberg in 1866. At the out-break of the persecutions of the Jews in Russia in the year...
FEINSTEIN, ARYEH LÖB – Russian scholar; born at Damachev, near Brest-Litovsk, Dec. 6, 1821; died there Jan. 20, 1903. Feinstein studied the Talmud for many years, and afterward accepted the position of foreman with a firm at Brest. In his commercial...
FELIX PRATENSIS – Jewish apostate; born at Prato, Italy, in the second half of the fifteenth century; died at Rome in 1539. He received a good education and acquired a perfect knowledge of three languages. In 1518 he embraced Christianity,...
FERRUS, PETER – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived in Spain in the fifteenth century. A poet of ability, he exercised his talents in deriding his former coreligionists. Juan Alfonso de Baena, in his "Canzionero," cites four poems by...
FIDANQUE, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – English scholar; died at London in 1701. He was one of the first Jews after the Return to busy himself with the study of rabbinic literature. He is the author of notes on the commentary to the Earlier Prophets by Isaac...
FINGER – One of the digits. In the Bible the term is sometimes used in a figurative sense, denoting power, direction, or immediate agency. "Thy heavens, the works of thy fingers [of thy power]," says the Psalmist (Ps. viii. 3). "Tables...
FLAVIUS EBORENSIS – Poet; born at Evora, Portugal, April 4, 1517; died at Ragusa, Sicily, 1607. He belonged to the Adumim, an old Spanish family, the greater part of which settled in Italy and assumed the name "De Rossi." His parents, in order to...
FLAVIUS (RAIMUNDUS) MITHRIDATES – Italian scholar; flourished at Rome in the second half of the fifteenth century. His Jewish name is unknown. About 1486 he lived at Fratta, near Ferrara, in the house of Count Johannes Pico de Mirandola, whom he instructed in...