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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
FOLIGNO, HANANEL DI – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived at Rome in the sixteenth century. He made himself notorious by his slanderous attacks upon his former coreligionists. With Vittorio Eliano and Joseph Moro, two other converts, he appeared,...
FONTANELLA, ISRAEL BERECHIAH BEN JOSEPH JEKUTHIEL – Italian rabbi and cabalist; lived at Reggio Emilia, later at Rovigo, at the end of the seventeenth century and in the first half of the eighteenth. He was also an eminent Talmudist (see Lampronti, "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," s.v. ). An...
FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born at Offenbach July 28, 1808; died there April 24, 1889. After graduating (Ph.D. 1831) from the Giessen University, he settled in his native city as preacher, succeeding Rabbi Metz in 1842; he filled this office...
FRANCE – Country forming the most westerly part of Central Europe.Church Laws Against Jews. —Roman-Gallic Epoch: The banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul in the year 6 (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 13, §§ 2-3; idem, "B. J." ii. 7, § 3;...
FRANCHI, GUGLIELMO DEI – Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Rome; died there about 1600. Embracing Christianity, he joined the monastic order of Vallombrosa, and devoted himself to the dissemination of knowledge of Hebrew among Christians. In 1596...
FRÄNKEL, BENJAMIN – Russian scholar; lived at Warsaw in the first half of the nineteenth century. He traveled in Germany and England. He published the following works: (1) "Teru'at Melek," on patriotism and the obligation of loyalty, published...
FRÄNKEL, JONAS – German banker and philanthropist; son of Joel Wolf, grandson of David Fränkel, the author of "Ḳorban 'Edah"; born at Breslau at the end of the eighteenth century; died there Jan. 27, 1846. Owing to his great commercial ability...
FRÄNKEL, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM – German rabbi; father of David Fränkel; born at Berlin June 30, 1739; died at Dessau Feb. 20, 1812. In 1787 he settled at Dessau, where he filled the office of rabbi; he was at the same time "Messrabbiner" at Leipsic, during the...
FRAT MAIMON – Provençal scholar; flourished in the second half of the fourteenth century. The name "Frat" is, according to Neubauer, abbreviated from "Frater." Frat Maimon was the author of four works, which are known only by quotations made...
FREE WILL – The doctrine that volition is self-originating and unpredictable. That man is free to choose between certain courses of conduct was regarded by rabbinical Judaism as a fundamental principle of the Jewish religion. Although...
FRENKEL, ISRAEL – Russian physician; born at Rypin, government of Plotzk, June 29, 1857. At the age of twelve he had received only a religious education. One of his teachers, however, Ḳalman Pivover, who from a simple "melammed" became later a...
FREUND, ERNST – Austrian physician; born at Vienna Dec. 15, 1863; educated at the University of Vienna, whence he was graduated as M.D. in 1888. Soon, afterward he became physician at the Allgemeine Krankenhaus, continuing at the same time his...
FRIEDENTHAL, MARKUS BÄR – German banker and scholar; born in 1779; died at Breslau Dec. 3, 1859. Although one of the leading bankers at Breslau, he devoted much time to study and to communal affairs. His special interest lay in the field of religious...
FRIEDMANN ("ISH SHALOM"), MEÏR BEN JEREMIAH – Austrian scholar; born at Kraszna, in the district of Kashau, Hungary, July 10, 1831. At the age of thirteen he entered the yeshibah at Ungvar, where he was attracted to Ḥasidism and the Cabala. Fortunately, however, at the age...
FUENN, BENJAMIN – Russian physician; son of Samuel Fuenn; born at Wilna in 1848; died there Aug. 12, 1901. Educated at the rabbinical seminary of his native city, Fuenn taught for two years, and then studied medicine, being graduated as M.D. from...
FUENN, SAMUEL JOSEPH – Russian scholar; born at Wilna Sept., 1819; died there Jan. 11, 1891. He received the usual Talmudic education, and also acquired an extensive general knowledge of the profane sciences. In 1848 the government appointed him...
FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD – Biblical Data: In the East the house is not as important as in northern countries, since the climate permits an outdoor life in the widest sense of the term. The house is used chiefly as a shelter for the night and for sleeping,...
GABISHON, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB – Algerian physician and scholar; descended from a Granada family; died at Tlemçen in 1605. He established himself as a physician in 1574 at Algiers, where he acquired a large practise. Gabishon was the author of a commentary on...
GABRIEL OF MILHAUD – French physician and translator; flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. He translated, in 1583, under the title "Mebo Arnabat," Arnauld of Villanova's dissertation on Hippocrates' maxim "Ars longa, vita brevis"...
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...
GALANTE – Jewish family which flourished at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Rome, and the head of which, Mordecai, was a Spanish exile of the Angel family. His courteous manners won for him from the Roman nobles the surname...
GALEN (GALENUS CLAUDIUS) – His Philosophy Criticized by Maimonides. Greek physician and philosopher; born at Pergamus, Mysia, about 131; died about 200. Eclipsed by those of Aristotle, Galen's philosophical works were not held in high esteem by the Jews....
GANS, DAVID BEN SOLOMON BEN SELIGMAN – German historian; astronomer; born at Lippstadt, Westphalia, 1541; died at Prague Aug. 25, 1613. After having acquired a fair knowledge of rabbinical literature at Bonn and Frankfort-on-the-Main, he went to Cracow, where he...
GART, JOSEPH – Provençal liturgical poet and commentator; probably lived at Aix in the fifteenth century. The surname is, according to Neubauer, the equivalent of the Hebrew "Shimroni," borne by the Gard family of Avignon (to which Joseph...
GENTILI – Italian family of Gorizia, several members of which were eminent rabbis and Talmudic authorities. Of these the most important were:Azriel Gentili: Cabalist; lived at Gorizia in the seventeenth century. He is quoted by Issachar...