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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
GENTILI – Italian family of Gorizia, several members of which were eminent rabbis and Talmudic authorities. Of these the most important were:Azriel Gentili: Cabalist; lived at Gorizia in the seventeenth century. He is quoted by Issachar...
GERIZIM, MOUNT – Biblical Data: Mountain south of the valley in which Shechem was situated; the present Jabal al-Ṭur (Deut. xi. 29, xxvii. 12; Josh. viii. 33; Judges ix. 7). It is 2,849 feet high, declines sharply to the north, and is sparsely...
GERSHON BEN HEZEKIAH – Provençal physician, astronomer, and grammarian; lived at Beaumes toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was the author of: "Shib'ah 'Enayim," a treatise on grammar and on the Masorah;...
GERSHON BEN SOLOMON OF ARLES – Provençal philosopher; flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century; said to be the father of Gersonides. He was the author of "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim" (Venice, 1547; Rödelsheim, 1801), a sort of encyclopedia divided into...
GHAZALI, ABU ḤAMID MOHAMMED IBN MOHAMMED AL- – Arabian theologian and moralist; born at Tuz, Khorasan, 1058; died there 1111. His works exerted a great influence upon Jewish thought in the Middle Ages. Both the students and the adversaries of philosophy found in them rich...
GIBBOR, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH – Karaite scholar; flourished at Constantinople between 1500 and 1540. His main work, which was highly esteemed by the Karaite scholars, was a poem entitled "Minḥat Yehudah"; it consisted of 1,612 verses ending in , containing all...
GIMEL – Third letter of the Hebrew alphabet, so called, perhaps, because the shape of the letter in the ancient West-Semitic script bears a resemblance to the neck of the camel. In pronunciation gimel corresponds to the Greek γ or to...
GLOSS – A foreign word or sentence, in Hebrew characters, inserted in Hebrew writings. In order to convey to the reader the exact meaning of a Biblical or Talmudical word or sentence not easily explained in Hebrew, some commentators...
GOLDBERG, BAER BEN ALEXANDER – Russian scholar; born at Soludna near Warsaw in 1799; died at Paris May 4, 1884. When he was scarcely fifteen years of age his parents contracted a marriage for him, and at eighteen he had to provide for the wants of a family....
GOSLAR – Town in the province of Hanover, Germany; on an affluent of the Ocker at the north-east foot of the Harz. According to the chronicle of Erdwin von der Hardt, "Plebis Tribunus et Antiquitatum Goslariensium Mirator," Frederick I....
GOUDCHAUX, MICHEL – French statesman: born at Nancy March 18, 1797; died at Paris Dec. 27, 1862. After having been established for some time as banker in his native town, he settled in Paris in 1826. His reputation for probity and philanthropy won...
GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI – Italian rabbi; died at Modena in 1685; cousin of Nathanael b. Benjamin Trabot. He probably belonged to the Gallico family, the name "Graziano" being the Italian equivalent of "Johanan." Graziano, who was rabbi of Modena, was the...
GREGORY XIII. (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI) – Pope from 1572 to 1585; born at Bologna Feb. 7, 1502; died at Rome April 10, 1585. His attitude toward the Jews was that of a man possessed of natural goodness warped by strong feelings of intolerance and fanaticism. Soon after...
GROSS, HEINRICH – German rabbi; born at Szenicz, Hungary, Nov. 6, 1835; pupil in rabbinical literature of Judah Aszod. After graduating from the Breslau seminary and from the University of Halle (Ph.D. 1866; his thesis on Leibnitz obtaining the...
GUIDACERIUS, AGATHIUS – Italian Christian Hebraist; born at Rocca-Coragio, Calabria, in the second half of the fifteenth century. Having studied Hebrew under a Portuguese rabbi at Rome, he was appointed teacher of that language at the university. In...
GUILLAUME OF AUVERGNE – French scholastic; bishop of Paris from 1228 to 1249. He was one of the originators of Christian scholasticism in the thirteenth century. In his writings he displayed an extensive knowledge of Hebrew literature; and, although he...
GUMPLIN – German satirical poet of unknown date. The only poem of his that has been preserved is a satire of seven strophes, ending with a refrain in which he very wittily criticizes the inhabitants of the Rhine province. Although his...
GÜNZBURG – Town of Bavaria, in the province of Swabia, on the Danube. A small but flourishing Jewish community existed there in the sixteenth century. In 1566 the Jews of Günzburg petitioned Emperor Maximilian H. to recognize as rabbi...
GÜNZBURG, JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI – Russian Talmudist; lived at Brest-Litovsk in the second half of the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the eighteenth. His father officiated as rabbi of Brest from 1664 until 1685, and Joseph occupied for many years the...
GURLAND, JONAH HAYYIM – Russian and Hebrew writer; born at Kleck, government of Minsk, in 1843; died at Odessa March 14, 1890. At the age of ten Gurland entered the rabbinical school of Wilna, from which he graduated as rabbi in 1860. Then he went to...
ḤABILLO (XABILLO), ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH (MAESTRO MANOEL) – Spanish philosopher; lived at Monzon, Aragon, in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was an admirer of the Christian scholastics, and studied Latin in order to translate into Hebrew some of their works, especially those...
ḤABILLO (CHAVILLO), ELISHA BEN SOLOMON – Venetian Talmudist of the eighteenth century; descendant of a prominent Palestinian family. Judah Chavillo is mentioned as a renowned Talmudist in the responsa "Darke No'am" (iii. 39) of Mordecai Levi of Cairo. Elisha was a...
ḤABILLO, SIMON BEN JUDAH BEN DAVID – Rabbi at Hebron in the middle of the seventeenth century; contemporary of Moses Zacuto, who approved his works. Ḥabillo was the author of: "Ḥebel ben Yehudah," a commentary on the Haggadah of Passover, Mantua, 1694; and "Ḥeleḳ...
HABINENU – Initial word, also the name, of a prayer containing in abridged form the Eighteen Benedictions (see Shemoneh 'Esreh), minus the first three and the closing three (see Liturgy). The prayer was formulated by Samuel of Nehardea, to...
HAGENAU – Fortified town of Alsace, situated on the Moder, sixteen miles north of Strasburg. Attracted by the numerous privileges granted to its inhabitants by Frederick Barbarossa, Jews settled there soon after it received its charter as...