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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
HAIR – Biblical Data: The hair of the ancient Hebrews was generally black (comp. Cant. iv. 1, v. 11). In Eccl. xi. 10 black hair is designated as a sign of youth in contrast with the white hair of age. Josephus narrates ("Ant." xvi. 8,...
HALÉVY, JOSEPH – French Orientalist; born at Adrianople Dec. 15, 1827. While a teacher in Jewish schools, first in his native town and later in Bucharest, he devoted his leisure to the study of Oriental languages and archeology, in which he...
ḤALFON, ABBA MARI – Italian astronomer of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In 1492 he was at Naples, where he studied astronomy. Ḥalfon was the author of "Ṭa'ame Miẓwot," containing explanatory notes on the Alfonsine Tables, and still extant...
ḤALFON, ELIJAH MENAHEM – Italian Talmudist and physician; son of the astronomer Abba Mari and son-in-law of Kalonymus ben David (Maestro Calo); flourished at Venice in the middle of the sixteenth century. In a collection of responsa compiled by Joseph...
ḤAMAI – Pseudonym of a cabalist belonging, according to Jellinek, to the school of Isaac the Blind. The works which bear this name are: "Sefer ha-Yiḥud," probably on the Tetragrammaton, quoted by Meïr ibn Gabbai ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh,"...
HAMBURG – German city on the right bank of the Elbe, between Sleswick-Holstein and Hanover. The first Jewish settlers were Portuguese Maranos, who had fled from their own country under Philip II. and Philip III., at first concealing their...
HANANEEL BEN AMITTAI – Spiritual leader of the Jewish community of Oria, Italy, in the ninth century. He is said to have been descended from a Jerusalem family, members of which were taken to Italy by Titus. In the Ahimaaz Chronicle Hananeel is...
HANAU, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH – German grammarian; born at Hanau (whence his surname) in 1687; died at Hanover Sept. 4, 1746. When but twenty-one he published at Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he had settled, a Hebrew grammar in which the ancient grammarians...
HANAU, ẒEBI HIRSH HA-LEVI BEN HAGGAI ENOCH – German rabbi; born at Vienna in 1662; died at Gemund, Bavaria, in 1740. He resided for many years at Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he assisted Jair Ḥayyim Bacharach in preparing his responsa, "Ḥawwot Ya'ir," for publication, and...
HARSELANI, ABRAHAM AL- – Karaite scholar; flourished in Babylonia in the tenth century. He is cited in Al-Hiti's chronicle as having disputed with the rabbinical authorities of his time. He is also quoted by Mordecai ben Nissim in the "Dod Mordekai" (p....
ḤASDAI (ḤISDAI), ABU AL-FAḌL BEN JOSEPH IBN – Jewish convert to Islam; lived at Saragossa in the second half of the eleventh century. Ibn Abi 'Uṣaibia ("'Uyun al-Anba fi Ṭabaḳat al-Aṭibba") pompously calls him a descendant of the prophet Moses. He relates further that...
ḤAYYAṬ, JUDAH BEN JACOB – Spanish cabalist; lived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Himself one of the exiles from Spain, he describes in vivid colors his sufferings and those of his brethren (preface to his "Minḥat Yehudah"). In the winter of...
ḤAYYIM, AARON IBN – Rabbi at Hebron, later at Smyrna; grandson of Aaron ben Abraham ibn Ḥayyim, author of the "Ḳorban Aharon." He was one of the victims of the earthquake which occurred in Smyrna in July, 1688. Considered one of the most prominent...
ḤAYYIM, ABIGDOR – Talmudist; lived in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Peri 'Eẓ Ḥayyim" (Amsterdam, 1742), containing responsa, annotations to Maimonides' "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah" and to the "Arba' Ṭurim," and sermons arranged in the order...
ḤAYYUN, ABRAHAM BEN NISSIM – Portuguese scholar; father of Don Joseph Ḥayyun, rabbi of Lisbon; lived in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He was the author of an ethical work entitled "Amarot Ṭehorot" (Constantinople, 1516).Bibliography: Kayserling,...
ḤAZḲUNI, ABRAHAM BEN HEZEKIAH – Galician Talmudist and cabalist; born at Cracow in 1627; died at Tripoli, Syria. He was a disciple of Yom-Ṭob Lipman Heller, and the author of the following works: "Zot Ḥuḳḳat ha-Torah," an abridgment of Isaac Luria's "Sefer...
HE – AZZANUT ḤAZZANUT Fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; on its form see Alphabet. It is a guttural, pronounced as the English "h," standing midway between א and ת, and sometimes interchanged with these two. At the end of a word it...
HEILPRIN, JOEL BEN URI – Galician thaumaturge; lived at Satanow in the first half of the eighteenth century. Possessed of a fair knowledge of medicine and physics, he pretended to effect cures and perform miracles by means of the Cabala and the Holy...
HEKALOT RABBATI; HEKALOT ZUṬARTI – Two mystic writings attributed to Ishmael ben Elisha; indiscriminately referred to by the various names of "Sefer Hekalot," "Pirḳe Hekalot," "Pirḳe Rabbi Yishmael," "Pirḳe Merkabah," "Ma'aseh Merkabah," "Hilkot Merkabah." They...
HEROD I – King of Judea 40-4 B.C.; founder of the Herodian dynasty; born about 73 B.C.; son of Antipater, and, consequently, of Idumean origin. It is said that when he was a boy of twelve an Essene named Menahem predicted that he would...
HEROD II. – King of Chalcis; son of Aristobulus and Berenice; grandson of Herod I. and the first Mariamne; brother of Agrippa I. and Herodias; died 48-49 C.E. He first married Mariamne, granddaughter of Herod I. From this union came...
HERODIAS – Pedigree of the Herodian Dynasty. Daughter of Aristobulus and Berenice and granddaughter of Herod I. and of his sister Salome. She was first married to her uncle Herod (not Philip, as in Mark vi. 17; see Schürer, "Gesch." i....
HERODIUM – Fortified city three leagues south of Jerusalem; founded by Herod I. It was built on a rocky and rugged hill. Its citadel contained royal apartments of great strength and splendor, and served as a sarcophagus for Herod. In the...
ḤET – Eighth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name, perhaps, means "hedge," "fence"; on the form, which is Aramaic, see Alphabet. "Ḥet" is a guttural, commonly pronounced nearly as the German "ch" before "a" or "o." Originally—as...
HEZEKIAH ROMAN BEN ISAAC IBN PAḲUDA – Turkish scholar; flourished at Constantinople in 1600. He was the author of "Zikron ha-Sefarim," a catalogue of all the grammatical works written from the time of Judah Ḥayyuj to the time of the author, reproduced by Wolf in...