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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
JUDAH POKI (PUKI) BEN ELIEZER TSHELEBI – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople; died before 1501; nephew of Elijah Bashyazi. According to Steinschneider, the surname "Poki" is a variation of "Bagi," which is derived from the Turkish "bak" (pronounced "bag"). Judah...
JÜLICH – City of Rhenish Prussia, near Aix-la-Chapelle, situated on the Ruhr. In 1227 Emperor Frederick II. conferred upon Count Wilhelm of Jülich the right to dispose, without any interference on the part of the crown, of any Jews who...
JULIUS III. (GIOVANNI MARIA DEL MONTE) – Two hundred and twenty-eighth pope; born at Rome 1487; elected pope Feb. 8, 1550;died March 22, 1555. Personally he was favorably inclined toward the Jews. He attached to his person a Jewish physician named Theodoro de...
JUWEL, MOSES MORDECAI – Galician scholar; lived at Brody in the first half of the nineteenth century. He translated from the German into Hebrew Hufeland's "Macrobiotik," or the art of prolonging human life, under the title "Ruaḥ Ḥayyim" (Lemberg,...
KAF – Eleventh letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name is generally taken to mean "hollow of the hand," to which the shape of the letter has a near resemblance (see Alphabet). Kaf belongs to the six consonants called "mutes," and has...
KAHINAH DAHIYAH BINT THABITAH IBN TIFAN – Jewish princess of a Berber tribe likewise called Kahinah; lived in the second half of the seventh century. According to the Mohammedan historians, the most powerful tribe at the time of the Arab invasion of the Maghreb was the...
KALAẒ (KHALLAṢ), JUDAH – Cabalist and moralist; lived in Algeria, probably at Tlemçen, at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The surname "Kalaẓ" is derived from the Arabic "khallaṣ" (= "collector of taxes"). Kalaẓ, was descended from a Spanish...
KALIFA, MOSES BEN MALKA – Poet and controversialist; born at Safi, Morocco, toward the end of the seventeenth century. He belonged on his mother's side to the Bedersi family of Provence. Left an orphan at an early age with an income sufficient for his...
KALISCH, MOSES BEN BENJAMIN WOLF MESERITZ – Polish physician of the seventeenth century. He was the author of: "Yerushat Mosheh" (2 vols., Frankfort-on-the-Main and Wilmersdorf, 1677), a medical work in Judæo-German describing remedies for various diseases;and "Yarum...
KALOMITI, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES – Turkish scholar of the fifteenth century. To him is attributed the rationalistic commentary on Job found in manuscript in the Bodleian Library (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2243). In this commentary (fol. 57) the author...
KALONYMUS – A prominent family (originally from Lucca, Italy), which, after the settlement at Mayence and Speyer of several of its members, took during many generations a leading part in the development of Jewish learning in Germany. The...
KALONYMUS BEN DAVID BEN TODROS – French translator; lived in the first half of the fourteenth century. He translated (after 1328) from the Arabic into Hebrew, under the title "Happalat ha-Happalah," the treatise of Averroes against Ghazali's "Tahafut...
KALONYMUS BEN GERSHON – German Talmudist of the thirteenth century. He was a contemporary of Eleazar of Worms and Menahem ben Jacob, with whom he disputed concerning a halakic decision. The controversy is quoted by Mordecai ben Hillel ("Mordekai,"...
KALONYMUS BEN JUDAH – Italian physician; born in Naples; lived at Venice in the first half of the sixteenth century. He attained a high reputation in the Christian world by the following translations into Latin made by him: Zerahiah ha-Levi's Hebrew...
KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEÏR – Provençal philosopher and translator; born at Arles 1286; died after 1328. He was a descendant of a prominent Provençal family, several members of which held high positions among the Jews. The father of Kalonymus and Kalonymus...
KALONYMUS NASI – Provençal liturgical poet; flourished at Beaucaire in the middle of the thirteenth century. He was the author of a liturgical poem beginning for the Sabbath preceding the Feast of Passover ("Shabbat ha-Gadol"), in which are...
KALONYMUS BEN SHABBETHAI – Halakist, exegete, and liturgical poet; born at Rome about 1030. His father was president of the Jewish community, and his reputation as a Talmudic authority extended far beyond the boundaries of his native country. Halakic...
KALONYMUS BEN TODROS – French scholar; flourished at Narbonne in the second half of the twelfth century. He bore the title "Nasi," and was the leader of the community when Benjamin of Tudela visited Narbonne in 1165. He and his cousin Levi b. Moses...
KAMANKER, MOSES MEÏR – Polish Shabbethaian; lived at Zolkiev in the first half of the eighteenth century. An excellent Talmudist, and possessing in the highest degree the art of dissimulation, he was sent by the Polish Shabbethaians as a secret...
KAMINER, ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM – Russian physician and Hebrew poet and satirist; born at Levkiev, near Jitomir, in 1834; died at Bern, Switzerland, March 30, 1901. His parents gave him an exclusively religious education, and caused him to marry when he was...
KANSI, SAMUEL – French astronomer of the fourteenth century. The surname "Kansi" ( ) is an incorrectly formed adjective of the Hebrew noun "keneset" ( ), and is the equivalent of "D'Escola" ( ), a name borne by severalProvençal Jews. Kansi...
KAPLAN, ABRAHAM – Russian Hebrew writer; born at Wilke July 25, 1839; died at Vienna Feb. 2, 1897. Having acquired a reputation as a good Hebrew writer at home, he removed to Vienna, where he followed the profession of a publicist until his...
KAPLAN, WOLF HA-KOHEN – Russian teacher and Hebrew poet; born at Trishki, government of Kovno, in 1826; died at Riga June 14, 1888; pupil of M. A. Ginzburg. Kaplan was an able educator, and his school at Riga became the model for all the Jewish...
ḲARA, ABIGDOR BEN ISAAC – Bohemian cabalist and liturgical poet; died at Prague April 10, 1439. He lived for a time at Ratisbon, but settled permanently at Prague after 1409. Ḳara enjoyed a high reputation and associated with King Wenceslaus, who liked...
ḲARA, MENAHEM BEN JACOB – Bohemian scholar; flourished at Prague in the first half of the fifteenth century. He was a near relative, perhaps a half-brother, of Abigdor ben Isaac Ḳara, whom he quotes in his writings as "my brother." Ḳara was the author of...