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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
ḲARA, SIMEON – French rabbi; lived in Mans in the eleventh century; brother of Menahem ben Ḥelbo and father of Joseph Ḳara. For the meaning of his surname see Ḳara, Joseph. Isaac de Lattes, in his "Ḳiryat Sefer," counts Ḳara among the...
KARFUNKEL, AARON BEN JUDAH LÖB HA-KOHEN – Bohemian rabbi. After having successively filled the rabbinates of Gawartschew, Lask, Dasparschi, and Widowa, he was called in 1801 to Nachod, where he remained until 1806. Karfunkel was the author of "She'eltot ABiYaH,"...
KARLSRUHE (CARLSRUHE) – German city; capital of the grand duchy of Baden. Jews began to settle there soon after its foundation (1715) by Margrave Carl Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach; they were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to...
KARMI – Family name, the Biblical "Carmi" (Num. xxvi. 6); it was used, according to Gross, as a gentilic adjective to the French "Crémieu" or "Crémieux" (= "Kerem Ṭob"), name of a county of the department of Isère, where many Jews were...
KINDERFREUND, ARYEH LÖB – Polish scholar; born at Zamosc, government of Lublin, 1798; died at Lemberg 1873. In the earlier part of his life he was in very good circumstances, but he soon lost his fortune and had to make use of his knowledge of classical...
ḲIRḲISANI, ABU YUSUF YA'ḲUB AL – Karaite dogmatist and exegete; flourished in the first half of the tenth century; a native of Circassia (whence the name of Ḳirḳisani). He seems to have traveled throughout the Orient, visiting the centers of Mohammedan...
ḲOF – Nineteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; for its form see Alphabet. The meaning ofthe name is uncertain. It corresponds in form to the Greek "koppa" and the English "q," and is distinguished in pronunciation from Kaf in that it...
KOKEBE YIẒḤAḲ – Hebrew annual; published at Vienna from 1845 to 1872 by M. Stern, and from 1872 to 1873 by M. Weissmann (Chajes). The annual was devoted to literary history, philology, exegesis, and Hebrew poetry, and many able dissertations by...
KRONIK (KRONIKER), MOSES BEN AKIBA OF GLOGAU – Rabbi of Flatow (Zlotowo); lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Tefillah we-Todah," hymns and prayers for the community of Glogau on the occasion of the raising of the siege on April 24, 1814,...
KRYSA, JUDAH LÖB BEN NATHAN – Frankist leader; lived in Galicia in the eighteenth century. He filled the office of rabbi at Nadworna, Galicia, but joined the Frankist movement as soon as it arose and became the leader of the sect. Sent as the representative...
KUFAH, AL- – Ruined city of Asiatic Turkey, 88 miles south of Bagdad, situated on an affluent of the Euphrates; founded by Omar on the ruins of Ctesiphon in 639. A strip of land near it was given by him to the Jewish exiles from Arabia. An...
KUTNER, JOSHUA HÖSCHEL – Preacher at Lissa in the middle of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Ha-Emunah weha-Ḥaḳirah" (Breslau, 1847), containing a philosophical development of the thirteen articles of belief of Maimonides, and extracts from...
LAMED – Twelfth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; on its form see Alphabet. The meaning of the name is uncertain. The letter is a liquid, pronounced like the English "l"; it interchanges with the other liquid consonants and semivowels, and...
LANGUEDOC – Ancient province of France corresponding to the present departments of Tarn, Aude, Gard, and Ardèche, with parts of Haute-Loire, Haute-Garonne, and Tarn-et-Garonne. It was divided into two parts: Higher Languedoc, having for its...
LANIADO – Sephardic family settled in Italy and the East; the best-known members are:Abraham ben Isaac Laniado: Oriental scholar of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; born in Aleppo; a contemporary of Joseph Caro, whose Talmudical...
LA ROCHELLE – City and seaport of France; capital of the department of Charente-Inférieure; situated on the Atlantic coast. Its small Jewish community made itself conspicuous in the third decade of the thirteenth century by the exploits of...
LEMMLEIN (LÄMMLIN), ASHER – Pretended forerunner of the Messiah. He appeared in Istria, near Venice, in 1502, and announced the coming of the Messiah in that very year, provided the Jews showed repentance and practised charity. Having gained many adherents...
LEO X. (GIOVANNI DE MEDICI) – Two hundred and twenty-fourth pope; born at Florence Dec. 11, 1475; elected March 11, 1513; died Dec. 1, 1521. His pontificate was very favorable for the Jews in general and for the Jews of Rome in particular. The latter saw in...
LEON JOSEPH OF CARCASSONNE – Physician; lived toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He devoted himself to the translation from the Latin into Hebrew of medical works. Among his numerous translations three are still...
LEON, MESSER DAVID BEN MESSER – Italian rabbi; flourished in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He studied at Naples in the school of his father, Messer Leon, author of "Libnat ha-Sappir," and received at the age of eighteen his rabbinical diploma from...
LEON (JUDAH ARYEH) OF MODENA – Italian scholar, rabbi, and poet; son of Isaac of Modena and Diana Rachel; born April 23, 1571, at Venice; died there March 24, 1648. He was a descendant of a prominent French family. His grandfather Mordecai became...
LEONTE (JUDAH) BEN MOSES – Roman rabbi; died in 1216. In the name of the community of Rome he sent a halakic decision to Judah ben Kalonymus of Speyer for approval("Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," ii. 75; comp. Buber's introduction, note 87). The Roman manuscript...
LETTER-WRITING AND LETTER-WRITERS – The art of conveying information by letter ("miktab," "iggeret," "sefer") was unknown to the Hebrews in the first stages of their history. From the times of the Patriarchs to those of King Saul the Bible mentions only messengers...
LEVI BEN GERSHON – French philosopher, exegete, mathematician, and physician; born at Bagnols in 1288; died April 20, 1344. Abraham Zacuto ("Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 224) states that Levi died at Perpignan in 1370; but the exact date of his...
LEVI BEN JAPHETH (HA-LEVI) ABU SA'ID – Karaite scholar; flourished, probably at Jerusalem, in the first half of the eleventh century. Although, like his father, he was considered one of the greatest authorities among the Karaites, who called him "Al-Shaikh" (the...