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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
MANTINO, JACOB BEN SAMUEL – Italian physician; died at Damascus in 1549. His parents—and perhaps Mantino himself—were natives of Tortosa, Spain, which place they left at the time of the banishment of the Jews from Spain (1492). Mantino studied medicine and...
MARTYRS, THE TEN – Among the numerous victims of the persecutions of Hadrian, tradition names ten great teachers who suffered martyrdom for having, in defiance of an edict of the Roman emperor, instructed their pupils in the Law. They are referred...
MASHIAḤ, ḤASUN BEN – Karaite scholar; flourished in Egypt (or Babylonia) in the first half of the tenth century. According to Steinschneider, "Ḥasun" is a corrupted form of the Arabic name "Ḥusain," the ו being easily confounded in manuscript with...
MATHEMATICS – The science that treats of the measurement of quantities and the ascertainment of their properties and relations. The necessity of studying astronomy for calendric purposes caused the ancient Hebrews to cultivate various...
MATTITHIAH BEN MOSES BEN MATTITHIAH – Spanish Talmudist; lived toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was a member of the Yiẓhari family of Narbonne. As he himself relates, his ancestors on being banished from France...
MEÏR – Ordained in Youth. Tanna of the second century (fourth generation); born in Asia Minor. The origin of this remarkable scholar, one of the most striking figures of his age, is wrapped in obscurity. According to a haggadah, he was...
MEÏR BEN SIMEON OF NARBONNE – Talmudist and controversialist; lived at Narbonne in the second half of the thirteenth century. He was a disciple of Nathan ben Meïr of Trinquetaille, and a contemporary of Naḥmanides, with whom he maintained a scientific...
ME'IRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON – Provençal Talmudist and commentator; born at Perpignan in 1249; died there in 1306; his Provençal name was Don Vidal Solomon. He was a disciple of Reuben ben Ḥayyim of Narbonne. Me'iri is regarded as one of the most brilliant...
MENAHEM VARDIMAS BEN PEREZ THE ELDER – French tosafist and liturgist; died at Dreux 1224. The name "Vardimas," found in Talmud Babli (Shab. 118b) as a bye-name of Menahem bar Jose, was adopted by this tosafist probably to distinguish him from other persons bearing...
MENELAUS – High priest from 171 to about 161 B.C.; successor of Jason, the brother of Onias III. The sources are divided as to his origin. According to II Maccabees (iv. 23), he belonged to the tribe of Benjamin and was the brother of the...
MESHULLAM BEN ISAAC SALEM BEN JOSEPH – Italian poet; lived successively at Mantua and Venice at the end of the sixteenth century and at the beginning of the seventeenth. Like his father, he was a corrector in the Hebrew printing-offices at the above-named cities,...
MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON – Poet; lived at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Although Jedaiah Bedersi, in his "Iggeret Hitnaẓẓelut," classes Meshullam among the Provençal poets, Meshullam's native country seems to have been Spain. According to Gross...
MESHWI AL-'UKBARI – Founder of the Jewish sect Al-'Ukbariyyah (Okbarites), which derived its name from the city of 'Ukbara, near Bagdad, said to have been the place of residence of Meshwi. According to Ḳirḳisani, Meshwi lived after Ishmael...
MEYER, FRIEDERICH CHRISTIAN – Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Hamburg in the second half of the seventeenth century; died in Belgium about 1738. After having been baptized at Bremen, he became a missionary and traveled for thirty years. He was the...
MICROCOSM – Man a Universe in Little. Philosophical term applied to man when contrasted with the universe, which, in this connection, is termed the macrocosm. The idea of an analogy between man and the universe was expressed by the ancient...
MILES OF MARSEILLES – Provençal physician and philosopher; born at Marseilles 1294. In some manuscripts he is designated by the name "Bongodos," the Provençal equivalent of "Ben Judah." From early youth he devoted himself to the study of science and...
MIN – Various Applications of the Term. Term used in the Talmud and Midrash for a Jewish heretic or sectarian. Its etymology is obscure, the most plausible among numerous explanations being that given by Bacher, namely, that it is...
MONTALTO, FILOTHEO ELIAU (ELIJAH) – Portuguese physician; born at Castello Branco in the middle of the sixteenth century; died at Tours, France, in 1616. According to Kayserling ("Die Juden in Navarra," p. 146), Montalto was a brother of the physician Amatus...
MORDECAI BEN NISSAN HA-ZAḲEN – Karaite scholar; lived at Krasnoi-Ostrog, Poland, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He studied under Joseph ben Samuel, ḥazzan of Kalisz, and David ben Shalom ha-Zaḳen, and at an earlyage became proficient both in...
MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF NÎMES – Liturgical poet and astronomer; lived at Avignon in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was the author of a liturgical poem composed at Avignon in 1462 (published, with the religious controversy of Jehiel of Paris, at...
MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE – Tosafist; lived in the twelfth century. He was a disciple of Jacob Tam, with whom he carried on an active scientific correspondence, and was one of the members of the assembly presided over by him. Moses was the author of a...
MOSES ḤASID – Austrian ethical writer; lived at Prague in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of a "Ẓawwa'ah," containing ethical instructions (Prague, 1717), a portion of which, under the title "Iggeret ha-Musar," was...
MOSES BEN ISAAC (GAJO) OF RIETI – Italian physician, philosopher, and poet; born at Rieti in 1388; died at Rome about 1460. After having received instruction in Talmud and Hebrew literature from his father, he devoted himself to the study of medicine and...
MOSES BEN JOSHUA OF NARBONNE (MAESTRO VIDAL BLASOM) – French philosopher and physician; born at Perpignan at the end of the thirteenth century; died after 1362. His education in philosophy began at the age of thirteen, under his father, and continued under Moses and Abraham...
MOSES BEN MAIMON – Traditional Portrait of Moses ben Maimon, with Autograph.Talmudist, philosopher, astronomer, and physician; born at Cordova March 30, 1135; died at Cairo Dec. 13, 1204; known in Arabic literature as Abu 'Imran Musa ben Maimun...