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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
MOSES MIZORODI BEN JUDAH MARULI – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was ayounger contemporary of Judah Poki, on whose "Sha'ar Yehudah" he wrote a eulogy. Moses was a prolific writer; but, with the exception...
MOSES BEN NAḤMAN GERONDI – Precocious Development. Spanish Talmudist, exegete, and physician; born at Gerona (whence his name "Gerondi") in 1194 (Gans, "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," p. 50, Warsaw, 1890); died in Palestine about 1270. He was the grandson of Isaac ben...
MOSES OF PALERMO – Sicilian translator from the Arabic into Latin; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. According to a document preserved in the municipal archives of Naples and reproduced by Amari in his "Guerra del Vespro...
MOSES OF PARIS – Exegete; lived in the middle of the twelfth century. According to Gross, he is identical with Moses ben Jehiel ben Mattathiah, the head of the Jewish community of Paris, of whom the Maḥzor Vitry (No. 280) tells the story that he...
MUNAJJA, ABU AL-FARAJ IBN ṢADAḲAH – Samaritan writer; lived in the twelfth century, probably at Damascus. His father was a renowned poet (whence the son's name of Ibn al-Sha'ir). Munajja was the author of various commentaries on the Pentateuch, which are cited by...
NATHAN OF AVIGNON – Talmudist; lived in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Hilkot Sheḥiṭah u-Bediḳah," containing laws concerning the slaughtering of animals and the examination of their carcasses with reference to...
NATHAN JUDAH BEN SOLOMON – Provençal physician of the fourteenth century. His Provençal names were En Bongodas and Bonjues and he was probably a native of Avignon, where lived many other members of the Nathan family. Judah, like all the other members of...
NATIONS AND LANGUAGES, THE SEVENTY – In the Book of Jubilees. The haggadic assumption that there are seventy nations and languages in the world is based upon the ethnological table given in Gen. x., where seventy grandsons of Noah are enumerated, each of whom...
NISAN – First ecclesiastical and seventh civil month (Neh. ii. 1; Esth. iii. 7). In the earlier Biblical books it is designated "Ḥodesh ha-Abib" (month of the harvest). It is regarded as a sacred month because, according to a tradition,...
NISSI BEN NOAH – Karaite scholar; lived at Bassora, later at Jerusalem, in the eighth century. He is believed to have been the son of Abu Nissi Noah, who is given in the Karaite tradition as a contemporary and senior of Anan. In the introduction...
NISSIM BENVENISTE, DON – Spanish scholar of the fifteenth century. His halakic consultations with Isaac Aboab were published, under the title "She'elah u-Teshubah," by Abraham Meldola in the "Shib'ah 'Enayim" (Leghorn, 1745).Bibliography:...
NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES – Philosopher of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. He was the author of a philosophical commentary on the Pentateuch, written about 1306, when the struggle between the Orthodox and the friends of philosophy was at its...
NOLA, ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH DI – Italian physician and rabbi of the sixteenth century. In 1563 he was living in Rome, where he occupied the position of rabbi. He enjoyed a high reputation as a Talmudical authority and was consulted on halakic decisions. A...
NORZI – Italian family, many members of which were distinguished as scholars and rabbis. Probably the family name is derived from the town of Norcia. According to Mortara, there were two distinct families of the name at Mantua—one from...
ORAN – Capital of the department which forms the western part of the French colony of Algeria; situated at the head of a bay on the Mediterranean. There are no records concerning the date of settlement of Jews there, but since the city...
PALEOGRAPHY – Greek and Latin Inscriptions: Besides a certain number of pagan inscriptions mentioning Jewish affairs, about 500 texts referring directly to persons professing the Jewish religion are known. These have been found throughout the...
PALTIEL – Vizier to the Egyptian califs Al-Mu'izz and 'Abd al-Manṣur; lived in the second half of the tenth century. The Chronicle of Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, the only source for the history of this personage, makes Paltiel, by his mother,...
PE – Seventeenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name appears to be connected with "peh" = "mouth" (see Alphabet). "Pe" has a double pronunciation: (1) as a surd mute (which sound is indicated by the dagesh lene) it is identical...
PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL – French tosafist; lived at Corbeil in the second half of the thirteenth century; died before 1298, probably in 1295; son of the Talmudist Elijah of Tours. In Talmudical literature he is designated by the abbreviations "RaP" (=...
PETER – Tosafist of the twelfth century; pupil of Samuel ben Meïr and Jacob Tam. His name occurs in Tos. Giṭ. 8a and 'Ab. Zarah 74b, and in several other places. Peter fell a victim to the persecutions of the second Crusade. While...
PHINEHAS BEN JAIR – Tanna of the fourth generation; lived, probably at Lydda, in the second half of the second century; son-in-law of Simeon ben Yoḥai and a fellow disciple of Judah I. He was more celebrated for piety than for learning, although...
PILATE, PONTIUS – Fifth Roman procurator of Judea, Samaria, and Idumæa, from 26 to 36 of the common era; successor of Valerius Gratus. According to Philo ("De Legatione ad Caium," ed. Mangey, ii. 590), his administration was characterized by...
PLUNGIAN (PLUNGIANSKI), MORDE-CAI (MARCUS) – Russian Hebraist and author; born at Plungian, in the government of Wilna, 1814; died at Wilna Nov. 28, 1883. He was a descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, author of the "Lebushim." While still young Plungian became a Talmudist of high...
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE – First Appearance in Egypt. Although pagan nations as a rule were not prone to intolerance in matters of religion, they were so with regard to Judaism. They were highly incensed against the people which treated so contemptuously...
POMIS, DE – An old Italian Jewish family which claimed descent from King David. According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in the introduction to his lexicon "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," the Pomeria family was one of the four families brought from...