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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN COHEN – German rabbi; born at Prague in the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1740. His father, who was a distinguished Talmudist, instructed him in rabbinical literature, in which he acquired great...
PORTO – Italian family of which the following members are noteworthy:Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto: Italian scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cremona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 1594 he edited and printed...
POTCHI, MOSES – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople in the second half of the sixteenth century. He belonged to the Maruli family, the name of which was adopted by his son Joseph. Simḥah Luzki attributes to Potchi the unpublished work...
PRADO, MOSES – Christian convert to Judaism; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, first at Marburg, Germany, and later at Salonica, Turkey. His Christian name was Conrad Victor, and he filled the position of professor of the...
PREDESTINATION – The belief that the destiny of man is determined beforehand by God. "Predestination" in this sense is not to be confounded with the term "preordination," applied to the moral agents as predetermining either election to eternal...
PSANTIR, JACOB BEN ZELIG – Rumanian historical writer; born at Botoshani June 6, 1820; died in Bucharest March 22, 1901. From his childhood he devoted himself to the study of music, and at an early age he became conductor of a band of traveling Gipsy...
RABBI – Rabban," "Rabbi," and "Rab." —The Title: Hebrew term used as a title for those who are distinguished for learning, who are the authoritative teachers of the Law, and who are the appointed spiritual heads of the community. It is...
RAGSTATT, FRIEDRICH VON WEILA – Convert to Christianity; born in Germany 1648. His Jewish name was probably Weil, whence his surname von Weila. He embraced Christianity at Cleves in 1671, and became pastor in a Dutch village. Ragstatt was author of the...
RAPPOLTSWEILER – Town of Upper Alsace. The earliest known official document concerning its Jews dates from 1321. In that year Louis IV., Emperor of Germany, transferred the Jews of Rappoltsweiler to the Sieur de Ribeaupierre as surety for a loan...
RATNER, DOB BAER BEN ABRAHAM BEZALEEL – Russian Talmudist; born at Wilna about 1845. He is the author of: "Mebo la-Seder 'Olam Rabbah," on Josef ben Ḥalafta's historical work (Wilna, 1894); "Seder 'Olam Rabbah," a critical edition of the text of the "Seder 'Olam...
REMAḲ (MOSES BEN JACOB CORDOVERO) – Rabbi of Safed and cabalist; born in 1522; died June 25, 1570. He belonged to a Spanish family, probably of Cordova, whence his name "Cordovero." After having studied rabbinical literature under the guidance of Joseph Caro,...
RESH – Twentieth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, perhaps so called because the shape of the letter in the Phenician alphabet (see Alphabet) resembles the form of a head (Hebr. "rosh"; Aramaic, "resh"). In pronunciation it is a palatal...
RIBKAS, MOSES BEN ẒEBI NAPHTALI HIRSCH SOFER – Russian Talmudist; died at Wilna in 1671 or 1672. He was a member of a Prague family, but settled early in life at Wilna. In 1655, in consequence of the war between Poland and Russia, he was compelled to flee from the city,...
ROQUEMARTINE, DAVID – French scholar; a native of Roquemartine; flourished in the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Zekut Adam," giving an allegorical interpretation of the Biblical narrative of the sin of Adam, which, according to the...
ROSENROTH, BARON VON (CHRISTIAN KNORR) – Christian Hebraist; born at Alt-Randen, in Silesia, July 15, 1631. After having completed his studies in the universities of Wittenberg and Leipsic, he traveled through Holland, France, and England. On his return he settled at...
ROSSI, AZARIAH BEN MOSES DEI – Earthquake at Ferrara, 1571. Italian physician and scholar; born at Mantua in 1513 or 1514; died in 1578. He was descended from an old Jewish family which, according to a tradition, was brought by Titus from Jerusalem. Combining...
ROUEN – Ancient capital of Normandy, and now the administrative center of the department of Seine-Inférieure; situated on the right bank of the Seine. The settlement of Jews in the city dates in all probability from the Roman period....
ṢADAḲAH BEN ABU AL-FARAJ MUNAJJA – Samaritan physician and philosopher; died near Damascus 1223. He was the court physician of Al-Malik al-'Adil, the Ayyubid prince, who ruled at Damascus. Ṣadaḳah was the author of: "Sharh Fuṣul Buḳraṭ" a commentary on...
SA'ID BEN ḤASAN OF ALEXANDRIA – Jewish convert to Islam; lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. He was the author of an apologetic work entitled "Masalik al-Nazar fi Nubuwwat Sayyid al-Bashar." The author intended to demonstrate from Holy Scripture...
SALEM, ASHER BEN IMMANUEL – Turkish scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Maṭṭeh Asher" (Salonica, 1748), containing responsa, novellæ on some parts of the "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah," laws concerning the slaughtering of animals after the method of...
SALONICA – Earliest Notice. Seaport city in Rumelia, European Turkey; chief town of an extensive vilayet of the same name which includes the sanjaks of Salonica, Serres, Drama, and Monastir; situated at the northeast extremity of the Gulf...
SALONICA – Earliest Notice. Seaport city in Rumelia, European Turkey; chief town of an extensive vilayet of the same name which includes the sanjaks of Salonica, Serres, Drama, and Monastir; situated at the northeast extremity of the Gulf...
SAMEK – The fifteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name may be connected with "samek" ="prop," "support." On the original shape of the letter see Alphabet. "Samek" belongs to the group of sibilants, with other members of which it...
SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON – French Talmudist; lived at Chinon between 1260 and 1330. In Talmudic literature he is generally called after his native place, Chinon (Hebr. ), and sometimes by the abbreviation MaHaRShaḲ. He was a contemporary of Perez Kohen...
SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE – Tosafist of the twelfth century; grandfather of the tosafists Isaac ben Abraham of Dampierre and Samson of Sens. Jacob Tam, with whom he carried on a scientific correspondence, held him in high esteem.Samson was the author of...