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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
SAMUEL OF EVREUX – French tosafist of the thirteenth century. He is identified by Gross with Samuel ben Shneor (not ben Yom-Ṭob, as given by Zunz in "Z. G." p. 38), whose explanations of Nazir are cited by Solomon ben Adret (Responsa, iii., No....
SAMUEL BEN ISAAC OF UCEDA – Talmudist of Safed in the sixteenth century; descendant of a family of Uceda, which, when banished from Spain, settled at Safed. Samuel was head of the Talmudical school which was conducted in the latter city by the liberality...
SAMUEL BEN JACOB OF CAPUA – Italian translator; lived, probably at Capua, at the end of the thirteenth century, if Steinschneider's supposition that Samuel was the father of the physician Solomon of Capua (MS. Turin No. 42) be correct. Samuel translated,...
SAMUEL BEN JACOB IBN JAM' – Rabbi of a North-African community ( ); flourished in the twelfth century. He was on intimate terms with Abraham ibn Ezra, who dedicated to him his "Ḥai ben Meḳiẓ" and mentioned eulogiously three of his sons—Judah, Moses, and...
SAMUEL BEN JUDAH – French physician and translator; born at Marseilles 1294. He devoted himself early in life to the study of science, especially philosophy. When he was about eighteen years old he went to Salon, where he studied astronomy under...
SAMUEL BEN MOSES – Russian cabalist; lived at Swislotz, government of Grodno, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of "Shem Shemu'el," containing cabalistic interpretations of the Pentateuch and giving cabalistic reasons...
SAMUEL HA-NAGID (SAMUEL HALEVIBEN JOSEPH IBN NAGDELA) – Spanish statesman, grammarian, poet, and Talmudist; born at Cordova 993; died at Granada 1055. His father, who was a native of Merida, gave him a thorough education. Samuel studied rabbinical literature under Enoch, Hebrew...
SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE – Tosafist of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His French name was Sir Morel, by which he is often designated in rabbinical literature: . He was a pupil of Judah Sir Leon of Paris and of Isaac ben Abraham of Sens. In 1240 he...
SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON NASI OF CARCASSONNE – French scholar of the thirteenth century. He was the author of a commentary on the "Moreh Nebukim," which is still extant in manuscript in the Library of the Neophytes at Rome. Gross identifies Samuel Nasi with Samuel Sekili,...
SAMUN, JOSEPH ḤAYYIM IBN – Italian Talmudist; lived at Leghorn in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was the author of "'Edut bi-Yehosef" (Leghorn, 1800), in two volumes, the first containing novellæ on the Talmudical treatise Baba Meẓi'a, and...
SARAGOSSI, JOSEPH – Talmudist and cabalist of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. On being banished from Spain in 1492 he went successively to Sicily, Beirut, and Sidon. He resided in Sidon for some time, and finally settled at Safed, wherehe...
SARDINIA – Under the Romans. An island in the Mediterranean, about 140 miles from the west coast of Italy, between 8° 4′ and 9° 49′ E. long., and between 38° 55′ and 41° 16′ N. lat. The settlement of Jews in various parts of the island...
SARUG (SARUḲ), ISRAEL – Cabalist of the sixteenth century. A pupil of Isaac Luria, he devoted himself at the death of his master to the propagation of the latter's cabalistic system, for which he gained many adherents in various parts of Italy. Among...
SASON, ABRAHAM – Italian cabalist; flourished in Venice at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He was the author of the following works: "Ḳol Mebasser" (Venice, 1605), a commentary on Daniel; "Ḳol Sason," on the arrival of the Messiah,...
SAVOY – A Refuge from France. Ancient independent duchy; part of the kingdom of Sardinia from 1720; ceded to France in 1860; and now (1905) forming the departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie. When in 1182 the Jews were expelled from...
SECCHI, PABLO MARINI – Italian Christian merchant; lived at Rome in the sixteenth century. He made a wager with a Jew, Samson Ceneda, that Santo Domingo would be conquered. The terms of the wager were that in the event of Ceneda losing he was to give...
SEFIROT, THE TEN – Doctrine of Emanation. Potencies or agencies by means of which, according to the Cabala, God manifested His existence in the production of the universe. The term is derived from the Hebrew noun "sefirah," which, meaning...
SENSES, THE FIVE – The Philosophers. According to the Aristotelian psychology, the human soul possesses, besides the rational and nutritive faculties, that of perceiving external objects, through the medium of bodily organs which are adapted to...
SERAH – Daughter of Asher, son of Jacob. She is counted among the seventy members of the patriarch's family who emigrated from Canaan to Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 17), and her name occurs in connection with the census taken by Moses in the...
SFORNO – Italian family, many members of which distinguished themselves as rabbis and scholars. The most prominent of these were the following:Hananeel ben Jacob Sforno: Talmudist; lived at Bologna in the fifteenth and sixteenth...
SHABBETHAI BEN ISAAC – Talmudist and grammarian; born at Lublin, Poland; lived at Przemysl in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; teacher of the Talmudist and cabalist Ḥayyim Bochner. Shabbethai was the author of: "Teshubah," a responsum on the...
SHANGI – Turkish family many members of which distinguished themselves as rabbis and scholars.Astruc ben David Shangi: Rabbi at Sofia, Bulgaria; died at Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth century. A halakic decision of his is...
SHEMAIAH – Prophet in the reign of Rehoboam. He was commissioned to dissuade the king from waging war against the Northern Kingdom after its revolt, because it was the will of God that Israel should form an independent state (I Kings xii....
SHIN – Twenty-first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name appears to be connected with "shen" = "tooth" (see Alphabet). The sign ש represents two sounds: (1) a dental surd sibilant (indicated by a point on the left horn, ש, and...
SHNEOR ZALMAN BEN BARUCH – Convert to Ḥasidism. Leader of the rational Ḥasidim called "ḤaBaD" (acrostic formed from "Ḥokmah," "Binah," "De'ah" = "Wisdom," "Understanding," "Knowledge"); born at Liozna, government of Moghilef, in 1747; died at Pyen, near...