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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
TAW – The twenty-second letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name is connected with "taw" = "sign" ( see Alphabet). "Taw" has a twofold pronunciation: (1) a soft, lisping sound uttered with a gentle expiration, like the Greek "theta"...
TAX-GATHERERS – In Palestine Under Egyptian Rule. During the Egyptian government of Palestine the taxes of each city were annually leased to the highest bidder (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 4, § 3). The lessee paid into the royal treasury a fixed...
TEMERLS, JACOB BEN ELIEZER – German Talmudist and cabalist; born at Worms at the end of the sixteenth century; died at Vienna about 1667. At an early age Temerls went to Poland, and for some years directed a Talmudical school at Lublin. Thence he removed to...
TE'OMIM, HEZEKIAH (FEIWEL) BEN JONAH – Rabbi at Przemysl; lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of "Teḳa' be-Shofar" (Breslau, 1719), containing documents concerning the litigation between the author and the community of Przemysl,...
TE'OMIM, JONAH BEN ISAIAH – Bohemian rabbi at Prague; died at Metz April 16, 1669. After having exercised the function of rabbi at Nikolsburg and in several other Bohemian communities he was called in 1660 to the rabbinate of Metz. In 1666 he was appointed...
TE' OMIM, JONAH (ḤAYYIM) BEN JOSHUA FEIWEL – Rabbi successively at Przemysl, Zülz, and Breslau; lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; son-in-law of David Oppenheim, rabbi of Prague, and later of Hirsch ben Benjamin, rabbi of Berlin. He was the author of:...
TE'OMIM, JOSEPH BEN MEÏR – Galician rabbi; born at Lemberg in 1727; died at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1793. While still young he succeeded his father in the position of preacher and rabbinical instructor in the yeshibah of Lemberg. Later he went to Berlin,...
TE'OMIM, JOSHUA FEIWEL BEN JONAH – Rabbi at Przemysl in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of "Panim Masbirot," a polemical work directed against Meïr ben Isaac Eisenstadt (1715).Bibliography: Steinschneider. Cat. Bodl. col. 1564.E. C. I....
ṬET – Ninth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The signification of its name is uncertain. Its sound is that of an emphatic surd dental (palatal English "t"). It occurs only as a radical, seldom as a formative element. It sometimes...
TISHBI, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH – Karaite scholar and liturgical poet; flourished at Belgrade in the first half of the sixteenth century; grandson of Abraham ben Judah. He copied and completed the exegetical work of his grandfather, entitled "Yesod Miḳra," and...
TODROS BEN ISAAC – Talmudist; lived in Italy or in southern France in the latter part of the thirteenth century and the early part of the fourteenth. He was the author of novellæ on the Talmud treatise Nazir, which are still extant in manuscript...
TODROS BEN MESHULLAM BEN DAVID – Provençal translator; born at Arles in the early part of the fourteenth century. Of his life no details are known except that in 1337 he lived at Trinquetaille, where he completed his translation of Aristotle's "Rhetoric." Many...
TOMBSTONES – None in Palestine in Biblical or Talmudic Times. Cemetery at Rome.(From a photograph.)The custom of marking a grave by a stone which bore an inscription describing the qualities of the deceased and giving his age and the date of...
TRABOT (TRABOTTI) – Family of Italian scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, which immigrated to Italy from France, so that several of its members bore the additional name "Ẓarfati." The most important representatives of...
TRANSLATIONS – Into Hebrew: After the early victories of the Mohammedans and the consequent spread of Arabic civilization, the Jews of the Eastern countries became familiar with and adopted to a large extent the Arabic language; so much so...
TRANSLITERATION – Into Hebrew: The Greek and Latin words which entered into the language of the Hebrews are transcribed in the Talmud, Midrash, and Targum according to purely phonetic principles, their etymologies being entirely disregarded....
TRANSMIGRATION OF SOULS – Doctrine Refuted by Saadia. The passing of souls into successive bodily forms, either human or animal. According to Pythagoras, who probably learned the doctrine in Egypt, the rational mind (ψρήν), after having been freed from...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TROKI – Karaite family deriving its name from the city of Troki, in the government of Wilna, Russia. The more important members of the family are:Abraham ben Aaron Ḥazzan Troki: Karaite liturgical poet; lived at Troki in the sixteenth...
TROKI – Karaite family deriving its name from the city of Troki, in the government of Wilna, Russia. The more important members of the family are:Abraham ben Aaron Ḥazzan Troki: Karaite liturgical poet; lived at Troki in the sixteenth...
TROKI – Karaite family deriving its name from the city of Troki, in the government of Wilna, Russia. The more important members of the family are:Abraham ben Aaron Ḥazzan Troki: Karaite liturgical poet; lived at Troki in the sixteenth...
TUNIS – In Roman Times. Formerly one of the Barbary States of North Africa, but since 1881 a dependency of France; situated between latitude 31° and 37° north, and longitude 8° and 11° east, and bounded north and northeast by the...
UZIEL – Family name occurring principally among the Sephardim in Spain, where it is found as early as the fifteenth century. After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal, the Uziels were scattered throughout northern Africa,...
WAW – Sixth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name possibly means "nail" or "hook," and the shape of the letter in the Phenician alphabet bears some resemblance to a hook. "Waw" is a labial spirant, identical in sound with the...
WEHU RAḤUM – A prayer, beginning with Ps. lxxviii. 38, recited on Mondays and Thursdays before Taḥanun. It is composed chiefly of Biblical verses, and is divided into seven parts: (1) "Wehu Raḥum"; (2) "Haṭṭeh Elo'a Ozneka"; (3) "Habbeṭ Na";...