JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D.

United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
ALLEGORY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT – Allegory is a sustained description or narration, treating directly of one subject, but intended as an exposition of another, the latter having a more spiritual nature than the former, yet bearing some perceptible resemblance to...
ALLITERATION AND KINDRED FIGURES – Successive use or frequent recurrence of the same initial letter or sound at the beginning of two or more words; specifically, the regular recurrence of an initial letter or sound in the accented parts of words in poetry;...
ANT IN JEWISH LITERATURE, THE – In Hebrew , so also in Arabic naml (etymology doubtful); in Aramaic (Targum, Peshito, and Talmud) , which has its equivalent in the Arabic sumsum, simsim, and is used especially of the small red Ant, distinguished from...
CUP – Biblical Data: The word most commonly used in the Old Testament for drinking-vessel is (Gen. xl. 11, 13). first occurs in the story of Joseph for the cup with which he "divined" (Gen. xliv. 2-12, Hebr.), and from Jer. xxxv. 5 it...
CUPBEARER – The officer who served the cup to the king. Like the Cup, the cupbearer is first mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with the story of Joseph in Egypt (Gen. xl. 21), where the title "chief of cupbearers" ( ) would show...
DIAL – Device for displaying the time by means of the shadow of a gnomon or style thrown by the rays of the sun on a graduated disk. It is generally agreed that by the "steps of Ahaz" (II Kings xxi. 9, 10; Isa. xxxviii. 8, Hebr.) some...
DOVE – One of the most familiar species of pigeon. The most common term for dove in the O. T. is "yonah," comprising the whole family of Columbidœ, but in particular denoting the dove (Columba), as distinguished from the turtle-dove...
ETROG – The citron (κίτρον, κίτριον); fruit of a tree of the orange and lemon family. It is oblong in shape, and sometimes as much as six inches in length. The skin is thick, somewhat hard, fragrant, and covered with protuberances; the...
FERRET – The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew "anaḳah" (Lev. xi. 30). The Septuagint has μυγάλη ("shrew-mouse"); but from the context it appears that some kind of lizard is meant. The Revised Version gives "gecko" (see...
FORTY, THE NUMBER – In the Bible, next to the number seven, the number forty occurs most frequently. In Talmudical literature it is often met with, in many instances having been apparently used as a round number or as a concrete and definite...
FOX – Biblical Data: There are at present two species of fox inhabiting Palestine: the Canis flavescens, found in the north, and the C. niloticus, common in the central and southern regions. But most of the passages of the Old...
GOAT – Biblical, Data: "'Ez" is the generic name for both sexes. Special terms for the he-goat: "'attud," Gen. xxxi. 10; Ps. l. 9, etc.; "ẓafir," Ezra viii. 35; II Chron. xxix. 21; "sa'ir," Gen. xxxvii. 31; Lev. iv. 23, etc.; and...
HAPAX LEGOMENA – Biblical Data: Words or forms of words that occur once only. There are about 1,500 of these in the Old Testament; but only 400 are, strictly, "hapax legomena"; i.e., are either absolutely new coinages of roots, or can not be...
HARE – Animal mentioned in Lev. xi. 6 and Deut. xiv. 7 among the unclean animals, "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The idea that the hare chews the cud probably arose from the constant moving of its jaws and...
HART – One of the clean animals enumerated in Deut. xiv. 5 (comp. xii. 15, 22; xv. 22), and among those provided for the table of Solomon (I Kings v. 3 [A. V. iv. 23]). It is certain that one of the Cervidœ is intended by "ayyal," but...
HAWK – The rendering of given by the English versions; it is enumerated among the unclean birds in Lev. xi. 16; Deut. xiv. 15. The Hebrew word, to which is added "after its kind," may designate any of the smaller diurnal birds of prey,...
HEN – There is no mention of the hen in the Old Testament, though "barburim abusim" (I Kings v. 3) is taken in B. M. 86b for "fattened hens." Many of the Talmudic references to the hen ("tarnegolet"; "gabrit"; "paḥya") are quoted...
HERON – Enumerated among the unclean birds (Lev. xi. 19 [R. V. margin, "ibis"]; Deut. xiv. 18; comp. Targ. , where the context points to some bird of the Ardeidœ family). There are at least seven species of heron common in Palestine,...
HONEY – Often mentioned in the Old Testament as a choice article of food. It was eaten alone (Judges xiv. 9; I Sam. xiv. 27, et al.), as well as with other foods. In pastry it took the place of sugar (Ex. xvi. 31). It was, with milk,...
HORSE – Biblical Data: The Hebrew terms are: , the generic and most common term; (I Kings v. 8; Micah i. 13; Esth. viii. 10, 14), the swift horse (A. V. "mule"); (only in the plural), the riding-horse, also the horseman (I Sam. viii....
HYENA – Biblical Data: The translation by the Septuagint of "ẓabua'" (Jer. xii. 9); the rendering of the Vulgate being "avis tincta," and that of the English versions "speckled bird." The rendering of the LXX., which is adopted by most...
HYSSOP – There is great uncertainty as to what specific plant is intended either by the Hebrew "ezob" or by the Greek ύσσωπος, nor is it clear that the words are identical. The Greek ὕσσωπος was credited with purifying qualities (comp....
INSECTS – Under this head are treated the species not described in separate articles under their individual names, as Ant; Bee; Beetle; Fly; Locust; etc.Centiped: The words "marbeh raglayim" (Lev. xi. 42), rendered by the Revised Version...
JUNIPER – The traditional rendering of "rotem" in I Kings xix. 4, 5; Ps. cxx. 4; and Job xxx. 4, adopted by Aquila and the Vulgate, and followed by the English versions; while the Septuagint seem to have been at a loss regarding the exact...
LAMP, PERPETUAL – In synagogues a perpetual light is maintained in a lamp which consists generally of a glass vessel containing a wick burning in olive-oil; this is held in an ornamental metal receptacle suspended from the ceiling in front of the...