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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D.

United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
LAPWING – The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew "dukifat," enumerated among the unclean birds in Lev. xi. 19 and Deut. xiv. 18. The rendering of the Revised Version, "hoopoe," is, however, supported by the ancient versions...
LAVER – Laver and Basin.(In the possession of Maurice Herrmann, New York.) Obverse of a Bar Kokba Coin, Bearing a Laver.(After Madden.) Laver Consisting of Ewer and Basin.(In the possession of B. L. Cohen, London.) Laver Consisting of...
LENTILS – Edible seeds first mentioned in the Old Testament in Gen. xxv. 29-34, where it is related that Jacob gave Esau "bread and pottage of lentils" for his birth-right. Lentils were also among the provisions brought by Barzillai to...
LEOPARD – A ferocious carnivorous mammal. Several allusions are found in the Old Testament to this animal and its characteristics; e.g., its fierceness, Isa. xi. 6; its agility and swiftness, Hab. i. 8; its cunning, Jer. v. 6 and Hos....
LINEN – Cloth made of flax. The Biblical terms are "bad" (LXX. λίνεος A. V. "linen"), "shesh," and "buẓ" (LXX. β;ύσσος or βίσσινος; A. V. "fine linen"). In the construction of the Tabernacle linen was used for the inner cover (Ex. xxvi....
LION – Biblical Data: There are several names for the lion in the Old Testament (comp. Job iv. 10 et seq.): "aryeh," or "ari," which is the most general name; "labi'" and "lebiyah," for the old lion and lioness; "kefir" and "gur," for...
LION – Biblical Data: There are several names for the lion in the Old Testament (comp. Job iv. 10 et seq.): "aryeh," or "ari," which is the most general name; "labi'" and "lebiyah," for the old lion and lioness; "kefir" and "gur," for...
LIZARD – A saurian or lacertilian reptile. About forty species and twenty-eight genera of lizards found in Palestine have been enumerated, the most common of which are the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and its varieties, and the...
LOCUST – Of all the insects the locust is most frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It occurs under the following nine names, which probably denote different species; but there is no certain clue by which the exact species intended...
LULAB – Name given to the festive palm-branch which with the Etrog is carried and waved on the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot). The three constituents of the lulab are: (1) a shoot of the palm-tree in its folded state before the leaves...
MEZUZAH – Name given to a rectangular piece of parchment inscribed with the passages Deut. vi. 4-9 and xi. 13-21, written in twenty-two lines according to the same rules as those for the Torah and tefillin. The parchment is rolled up and...
MOLE – Traditional rendering of the Hebrew "ḥaparparah" (Isa. ii. 20). Some give "mole" as the translation also of "ḥoled" (Lev. xi. 29), which is, however, generally assumed to mean Weasel. "Tinshemet," which the Septuagint, the...
MOUSE – An animal enumerated among the unclean "creeping things" in Lev. xi. 29. In I Sam. vi., where the reference is to the mice sent as a plague upon the Philistines to ravage their fields, "'akbar" may denote specifically the...
MULE – A hybrid between the ass and horse. The Hebrew term is "pered"; feminine, "pirdah." (For "rekesh," which some render by "mule," see Horse.) "Yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), which Targ. Yer., Arabic version, and Greek Venetus translate...
OAK AND TEREBINTH – The Hebrew terms calling for consideration here are: "elah" (Gen. xxxv. 4; Judges vi. 11, 19, and elsewhere); "el" (only in the plural form "elim"; Isa. i. 29, lvii. 5, A. V. "idols," R. V. "oaks"; lxi. 3, A. V. "trees"); "elon"...
OSPREY – Rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew "'ozniyyah" in the list of unclean birds in Lev. xi. 13 and Deut. xiv. 12. As the osprey proper (Pandion haliaetus)is not common in Palestine, "'ozniyyah" may be a generic term...
OSSIFRAGE – An unclean bird, mentioned in Lev. xi. 13 and Deut. xiv. 12; the Gypaetus barbatus, commonly known as the lammergeier (R. V. "gier-eagle"). It derives its name from its habit of breaking bones, its favorite food, by letting them...
OSTRICH – The Hebrew term for this bird occurring most frequently in the Bible is "bat ha-ya 'anah"; the plural form "ye'enim" occurs in Lam. iv. 3, and "renanim" in Job xxxix. 13 (A. V. "peacocks"). The Authorized Version renders also...
OWL – Rendering in the English versions of the following Hebrew words: "kos" (Lev. xi. 17; A. V. "little owl"); "yanshuf" (ib.; A. V. "great owl"; LXX. ἶβις); "tinshemet" (ib. v. 18; R. V., after the Samaritan and Targum, "horned...
PARALLELISM IN HEBREW POETRY – It is now generally conceded that parallelism is the fundamental law, not only of the poetical, but even of the rhetorical and therefore of higher style in general in the Old Testament. By parallelism in this connection is...
PARTRIDGE – This bird is mentioned only in I Sam. xxvi. 20 (LXX., νυκτικόραξ = "kos" = "owl") and Jer. xvii. 11.The most common partridge in Palestine is the Caccabis chukar; around the Dead Sea and in the Jordan valley the Ammoperdix heyi...
PEACOCK – Traditional rendering of "tukkiyyim," mentioned among the creatures brought by Solomon's ships from Tarshish (I Kings x. 22). The peacock is an Indian bird (comp. the Malabar "togai" and the Tamil "tokei" for the "tail" of the...
PELICAN – Unclean bird mentioned in Lev. xi. 18 and Deut. xiv. 17. Reference to its habit of living in ruins and desolate places is made in Isa. xxxiv. 11 and Zeph. ii. 14 (A. V. "cormorant") and in Ps. cii. 7 (A. V. 6). From its habit of...
PORCUPINE – Rendering adopted by many commentators for the Hebrew "ḳippod," for which the English versions have correctly Bittern. The porcupine (Hystrix cristata) is, however, very common in Palestine. It is considered by the natives as a...
POULTRY – Biblical Data: The rearing of domestic fowl for various uses became a part of Palestinian husbandry only after the return from Babylon (see Cock; Hen); but from Isa. lx. 8 it appears that at the time when that passage was...