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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
EZEKIEL, JACOB – The third of the Beni-Israel (the first two being Isaac Solomon and Joel Samuel) who visited the Holy Land (1894); he was accompanied on the pilgrimage by his wife. His "Travels to Jerusalem" (Bombay, 1895) is the record of his...
EZEKIEL, JOSEPH – Indian Hebraist; one of the heads of the Beni-Israel of Bombay; born in that city 1834. Ezekiel was educated in the school of the Free General Assembly by the Rev. John Wilson, and under his tuition he learned the rudiments of...
EZEKIELUS – Alexandrine poet; flourished in the second century B.C. He dramatized Biblical episodes in Greek hexameters. Four fragments of one of his dramas, representing the Exodus (Εξαγωγή) have been preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus...
EZRA, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The contents of the book are as follows:Synopsis of Contents. Ch. i.: Cyrus, inspired by Jehovah, permits the Israelites to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, and returns to them the golden vessels which had been...
FABLE – A moral allegory in which beasts, and occasionally plants, act and speak like human beings. It is distinct from the beast-tale, in which beasts act like men, but in which there is no moral. In the ancient world two nations only,...
FAGIUS, PAUL (Paul Büchlein) – Christian Hebraist; born at Rheinzabern, in the Kurpfalz, 1504; died at Cambridge, England, Nov. 13, 1549. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Strasburg, and became successively pastor at Isny, professor and...
FALK, ḤAYYIM SAMUEL JACOB – English cabalist and mystic; born about 1708; died in London April 17, 1782. Some writers give Fürth, others Podolia (Podhayce), as his birthplace. He was known as the "Ba'al Shem" of London. Falk left a diary, now in the...
FARJEON, BENJAMIN L. – English-Jewish novelist; born in London 1833; died there July 23, 1903; educated at private schools. He emigrated to New Zealand, where he entered upon a literary career and became manager and partial owner of the first daily...
FARO – Capital of the Portuguese province of Algarve. It was the seat of the district rabbi, or chief justice, appointed by the chief rabbi. Faro had Jewish inhabitants at an early date. They are mentioned in the municipal laws of...
FAUDEL-PHILLIPS, SIR GEORGE, BART. – Lord mayor of London (1896-97); second son of Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips; born in 1840. George Phillips, who derived the name of Faudel from his uncle, was educated at University College School, completing his studies in...
FEIS, JACOB – German merchant and author; died on July 7, 1900, in London, where he had resided for many years. He devoted his literary attainments chiefly to rendering some of the English classics into German, including Tennyson's "In...
FELBERMAN, LOUIS – Author and journalist; born in Hungary in 1861. In 1881 he went to England, and subsequently joined the staff of the society journal "Life" (then owned by his brother), of which he himself is now (1903) proprietor and editor....
FERDINAND II. – Emperor of Germany; born July 9, 1578; elected Aug. 28, 1619; died Feb. 15, 1637. On the whole his reign was favorable for the condition of the Jews in the empire, even though they were subjected to the vicissitudes of the...
FERDINAND, PHILIP – Hebrew teacher; born in Poland about 1555; died at Leyden, Holland, 1598. After an adventurous career on the Continent, during which he became first a Roman Catholic and afterward a Protestant, he went to Oxford University, and...
FERRARA – In the Thirteenth Century. City in central Italy; capital of the province and former duchy of the same name. The Jewish community of Ferrara was one of the most flourishing and important in Italy, and it gave to Judaism a number...
FEZ – Capital of the province of Fez in the sultanate of Morocco; built in the year 808 by Imam Idris II., who founded in Morocco the first Shiite state. A small wadi, known under various names, divides the city into two parts, Old...
FIDANQUE, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – English scholar; died at London in 1701. He was one of the first Jews after the Return to busy himself with the study of rabbinic literature. He is the author of notes on the commentary to the Earlier Prophets by Isaac...
FINANCE – The supplying of capital for large undertakings, a characteristic of modern forms of commerce. As distinguished from the more passive side of banking, the reception of deposits, it may be described as the active aspect of a...
FIRKOVICH, ABRAHAM B. SAMUEL (Aben ReSheF) – Russian Karaite archeologist; born in Lutsk, Volhynia, Sept. 27, 1786; died in Chu-fut-Kale, Crimea, June 7, 1874. He was educated as a Karaite scholar, but later paid much attention to rabbinical literature, by which his Hebrew...
FLESCH, JOSEPH – German merchant; born in Rausnitz, Moravia; died there Dec. 17, 1839. Flesch wrote excellent Hebrew, was a collaborator of the "Bikkure ha-'Ittim," and translated into Hebrew several of the writings of Philo, notably "Quis Rerum...
FOLK-MEDICINE – The ideas and remedies common among uncultured people with regard to the prevention and cure of diseases. They are found among the Jews of all ages. Even in the Old Testament the use of the mandrake to produce fertility is...
FOLK-SONGS – Songs or ballads originating and current among the common people, and illustrating the common life. Jewish folk-songs exist in languages and dialects other than Hebrew and Judæo-German; in Ladino, for instance. Traces of Hebrew...
FOLK-TALES – Stories usually containing incidents of a superhuman character, and spread among the folk either by traditions from their elders or by communication from strangers. They are characterized by the presence of unusual personages...
FORMON, ẒADDIḲ BEN JOSEPH – Turkish Talmudist and translator of the middle of the sixteenth century. He translated Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" into Judæo-Spanish (Ladino) under the title "Obligacion de los Coraçones." It was published the first time in...
FORTI, HORTENSIUS (JOHANAN) ḤAZAḲ – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived in the sixteenth century; born at Gorima, and settled at Prague under Maximilian II. He wrote "Diḳduḳ Leshon Ḳodesh," a Hebrew grammar, Prague, 1564-1566, and "De Mystica Literarum...