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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
LOT – Biblical Data: Son of Haran, Abraham's brother, and, consequently, nephew of Abraham; emigrated with his grandfather, Terah, from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran (Gen. xi. 31). Lot joined Abraham in the land of Canaan, and in the...
LOUSADA (OF PEAK HOUSE) – Name of a family that has held for many generations large possessions in Jamaica. A member of the family was created Duke de Lousada and Marquis di San Miniato. It is the only Jewish family that has held so exalted a title. Its...
LÖW, ASHER BEN ARYEH LÖB – Chief rabbi of Carlsruhe; born at Minsk in 1754; died at Carlsruhe July 23, 1837. He studied under his father, Aryeh Löb, rabbi of Metz; and when the latter had become blind he assisted him in conducting his yeshibah or...
LÖWENBERG, JULIUS – German geographer; born at Strzelno, Prussia, 1800; died at Berlin Dec. 12, 1893. He was educated in Berlin, where he became acquainted with Alexander von Humboldt, who assisted him in various ways. He wrote: "Afrika" (1835);...
LÖWENTHAL, JOHANN JACOB – Hungarian chess-master; born July, 1810, in Budapest; died at St. Leonard's-on-Sea, England, July 20, 1876. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native city, and received a civil appointment under the administration of Louis...
LÖWY, ALBERT – English rabbi and communal worker; born at Aussee, Moravia, Dec., 1816. He studied first at Olmütz, and then moved to Vienna, where under Professor Steinschneider he began a systematic study of Hebrew and Arabic. A few years...
LUCAS, LOUIS ARTHUR – African explorer; born in London Sept. 22, 1851; died at sea Nov. 20, 1876. After traveling in the United States (1872) and Egypt (1873), he organized an expedition to explore the Kongo. He left London Sept. 2, 1875, and arrived...
LUMLEY, BENJAMIN – Director of Her Majesty's Theatre, Drury Lane, London; born in Canada 1811; died in London March 17, 1875. He was the son of Louis Levy, a Canadian merchant who died in London about 1831. Benjamin was educated at King Edward's...
LUZZATTO (LUZZATTI) – Name of a family of Italian scholars whose genealogy can be traced back to the first half of the sixteenth century. According to a tradition communicated by S. D. Luzzatto the family descends from a German who immigrated into...
NISSIM BENVENISTE, DON – Spanish scholar of the fifteenth century. His halakic consultations with Isaac Aboab were published, under the title "She'elah u-Teshubah," by Abraham Meldola in the "Shib'ah 'Enayim" (Leghorn, 1745).Bibliography:...
LYDDA – City in Palestine, later named Diospolis; situated one hour northeast of Ramleh, about three hours southeast of Jaffa, and, according to the Talmud (Ma'as. Sh. v. 2; Beẓah 5a), a day's journey west of Jerusalem. It seems to have...
LYON, GEORGE LEWIS – English journalist and communal worker; born at Portsea, England, Dec. 11, 1828; died in London Feb. 14, 1904. After acting for a time as secretary of the Portsmouth Hebrew Benevolent Institution, Lyon went to London in the...
LYON (LEONI), MYER – Operatic singer and ḥazzan; died at Kingston, Jamaica, about 1800; uncle of John Braham; both he and his nephew were choristers at the same time at the Great Synagogue, London. Lyon was also a public singer; and his voice was...
LYON (LEONI), MYER – Operatic singer and ḥazzan; died at Kingston, Jamaica, about 1800; uncle of John Braham; both he and his nephew were choristers at the same time at the Great Synagogue, London. Lyon was also a public singer; and his voice was...
NORDHAUSEN – The Black Death. Prussian manufacturing town, in the province of Saxony. The earliest mention of Jews at Nordhausen occurs in a document signed by Rudolph I. of Habsburg and dated Oct. 30, 1290. In the oldest extant statutes of...
LYONS, ISRAEL – Hebrew teacher and author; born in Poland; died 1770. He emigrated to England and settled in Cambridge. Here he practised the craft of silversmith and acquired a reputation as a Hebrew scholar. This led to his appointment as...
LYONS, ISRAEL – English astronomer, botanist, and mathematician; born at Cambridge 1739; died in London 1775; son of Israel Lyons. In his earliest youth he showed a remarkable aptitude for study, especially for mathematics. He began in 1755 the...
LYSIAS – Syrian statesman of royal descent; died 162 B.C. (I Macc. iii. 32; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 7, § 2). When Antiochus Epiphanes undertook a campaign against the Parthians in 166-165, he appointed Lysias regent and guardian of his...
MA'ARABI (AL-MAGHREBI), ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL HA-DAYYAN – Karaite scholar; lived at Cairo in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; teacher of the Karaite physician and writer Japhet ibn Ẓaghir of Cairo. Ma'arabi wrote, in Arabic, a work on the precepts (probably "Kitab al-Fara'iḍ"),...
MA'ARIB – The evening prayer, from the first benediction in which the name is taken, the Talmudic term being "Tefillat 'Arbit"; one of the three daily prayers instituted in conformity with the practise of David ("Evening, and morning,...
MAAS, JOSEPH – English musician and singer; born at Dartford, Kent, Jan. 30, 1847; died at London Jan. 16, 1886. Maas acted as chorister for five years at Rochester Cathedral (from 1856) and studied under J. C. Hopkins and Madame Bodda-Pyne....
MA'ASEH BERESHIT; MA'ASEH MERKABAH – Talmudic terms for the esoteric doctrine of the universe, or for parts of it (comp. Cabala). Ma'aseh Bereshit, following Gen. i., comprises the cosmogony of the Talmudic times; Ma'aseh Merkabah, based on the description of the...
MACCABÆANS, THE – Association of English Jewish professional men and others; founded in 1892; its aim is social intercourse and cooperation among its members with a view to the promotion of the higher interests of the Jewish race. At first...
MACCABEES, THE – Name given to the Hasmonean family. Originally the designation "Maccabeus" (Jerome, "Machabæus") was applied solely to Judas, the third son of Mattathias the Hasmonean (I Macc. ii. 4, iii. 1, et passim), Mattathias' other sons...
MACCABEES, BOOKS OF – I. There are four books which pass under this name—I, II, III, and IV Maccabees. The first of these is the only one of the four which can be regarded as a reliable historical source.I Maccabees: The First Book of the Maccabees...