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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
MANTUA – Under the Gonzagas. Fortified Italian city, on the Mincio; capital of the duchy of Mantua. It has a population of 29,160, including 1,100 Jews (1901). In 1858 it had 2,523 Jews—the greatest number in its history. The first...
MANUSCRIPTS – Writing Material. The first materials used for writing were such substances as stone, wood, and metal, upon which the characters were engraved with a stylus. At a very early time, however, animal substances were employed, and...
MANUSCRIPTS – Writing Material. The first materials used for writing were such substances as stone, wood, and metal, upon which the characters were engraved with a stylus. At a very early time, however, animal substances were employed, and...
MARANO – Crypto-Jews of the Iberian Peninsula. The term, which is frequently derived from the New Testament phrase "maran atha" ("our Lord hath come"), denotes in Spanish "damned," "accursed," "banned"; also "hog," and in Portuguese it...
MARGOLIOTH – Polish family of Talmudic scholars that traces its descent from Rashi, on the one side, and from the families of Shor and Samuel Edels on the other. The first Margolioth known was Samuel, dayyan at Posen about 1550; one of his...
MARGOLIUTH, MOSES – Convert to Christianity; born in Suwalki, Poland, Dec. 3, 1820; died in London Feb. 25, 1881. He went to Liverpool, England, in 1837, where he met a convert named Lazarus, and the Rev. H. S. Joseph; the latter baptized...
MARḤAB IBN AL-ḤARITH – Jewish Arabian warrior and poet; killed during Mohammed'sinvasion of Khaibar about 628. Marḥab, who was of Himyarite descent, distinguished himself by his bravery in defending one of the forts of Khaibar. He is represented in...
MARKS, B. S. – English artist; born in 1827 at Cardiff, where he received his art education and followed the profession of portrait-painter until his removal to London in 1867. As a native of Wales he became Royal Cambrian Academician. During...
MARKS, DAVID WOOLF – The "father" of Anglo-Jewish Reform; born in London Nov. 22, 1811; educated at the Jews' Free School, London. He acted as pupil-teacher at Solomon's boarding-school at Hammersmith for five years, and then became assistant reader...
MARKS, HENRY HANANEL – English journalist and politician; born April 5, 1855, in London; fifth son of the Rev. Prof. D. W. Marks; educated at University College, London, and at the Athenée Royale, Brussels. At the age of sixteen he went to the United...
MARKS, SAMUEL – South-African pioneer; born in Sheffield about 1850. He went to Cape Colony about 1868 and commenced trading in the country. He entered the diamond trade, and, gaining the confidence of the diggers, bought claims and worked...
MARRIAGE – Forms of the Marriage Relation. —Biblical Data: The earliest Hebrew literature represents a comparatively high development of social and domestic life. Of primitive conditions of polyandry, such as existed among the early Arabs,...
MASKIL – 1. A title of honor used principally in Italy. The word "maskil," with the meaning of "scholar" or "enlightened man," was used by Isaac Israeli, who died in 1326 ("my colleagues, the maskilim"; "Yesod 'Olam," ii. 11, Berlin,...
MHUSHILKAR, REUBEN EZEKIEL – Beni-Israel soldier. He enlisted in the 19th Regiment Native Infantry Jan. 15, 1849, was made jemidar Oct. 1, 1861, and promoted subahdar Jan. 1, 1870. He was present at the battles of Multan, Gujarat, the Punjab (awarded medal...
MASSEL, JOSEPH – Russian Jewish Hebraist; born at Ujasin, government of Wilna, 1850. He emigrated to England in the nineties and settled at Manchester, where he opened a printing and publishing office. Massel has translated and published the...
MATHEMATICS – The science that treats of the measurement of quantities and the ascertainment of their properties and relations. The necessity of studying astronomy for calendric purposes caused the ancient Hebrews to cultivate various...
MATHEMATICS – The science that treats of the measurement of quantities and the ascertainment of their properties and relations. The necessity of studying astronomy for calendric purposes caused the ancient Hebrews to cultivate various...
MATRIARCHY – A system of society in which descent and property are traced solely through females. It has been suggested that the prominence given to the mothers of kings in the Books of Kings and to the wives of the Patriarchs are survivals...
MATTITHIAH ḲARṬIN – Scholar of the fourteenth century. He translated into Hebrew verse the "Moreh Nebukim" of Maimonides in 1363 (comp. Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i., No. 1682). His work seems to have been lost, unless this Mattithiah is identical with...
MAYHEM – In English law, the offense of depriving a person of any limb, member, or organ by violence. The bearings of such an act in the rabbinical law are fully treated under Assault and Battery.J. L. N. D.
MAẒLIAḤ BEN ELIJAH IBN ALBAẒAḲ – Italian Talmudist of the eleventh century. The surname, Ibn al-Baẓaḳ, the meaning of which is unknown, shows that Maẓliaḥ. came from a family of Eastern Jews. Maẓliaḥ knew Arabic well. After having been dayyan in Sicily, he went...
MAẒẒAH – Bread that is free from leaven or other foreign elements. It is kneaded with water and without yeast or any other chemical effervescent substance, and is hastily prepared to prevent the dough from undergoing the process of...
McCAUL, ALEXANDER – English Christian missionary and author; born at Dublin May 16, 1799; died at London Nov. 13, 1863. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Becoming interested in the Jews, he was sent as a missionary to Poland in 1821,...
MECIA (MATTHEW) DE VILADESTES – Jewish chartographer of Majorca at the beginning of the fifteenth century. He was the author of a map, dated 1413, formerly in the convent of Val de Cristo, near Segorbe, but now in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. In it he...
MEDEBA – A town east of the Dead Sea and a few miles south of Heshbon. It was wrested from the Moabites by Sihon, King of the Amorites (Num. xxi. 30); and after the conquest of Palestine it was assigned, together with the plain in which...