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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
MEDICINE – In Bible and Talmud: The ancient Hebrew regarded health and disease as emanating from the same divine source. "I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal" (Deut. xxxii. 39), said the Lord through His servant Moses; and...
MEDINA – Second sacred city of Islam; situated in the Hijaz in Arabia, about 250 miles north of Mecca. It is celebrated as the place to which the Hegira (Mohammed's flight from Mecca) was directed, and as the capital and burial-place of...
MEDINA, SIR SOLOMON DE – English army contractor about 1711. He was a wealthy Jew who went to England with William III., and who attained some notoriety by his extensive dealings with the English government of his day. "The Jew Medina," as he was...
MEGIDDO – Capital of one of the Canaanitish kings conquered by Joshua; assigned to Manasseh (Josh. xii. 21, xvii. 11; I Chron. vii. 29). Its Canaanitish inhabitants were only put to tribute, not driven out (Josh. xvii. 12-13; Judges i....
MEINEK, MOSES SÄKEL – German scholar and editor; lived at Offenbach at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He published in 1715, under his own name, Naphtali Pappenheim's "Teutsche Apothek," and in 1717 a riddle in Judæo-German verse composed by...
MEÏR – Ordained in Youth. Tanna of the second century (fourth generation); born in Asia Minor. The origin of this remarkable scholar, one of the most striking figures of his age, is wrapped in obscurity. According to a haggadah, he was...
MEÏR BEN ELIAKIM – German liturgist; probably lived at Posen toward the end of the seventeenthcentury; author of "Meïr Elohim" (n.p., n.d.), a collection of Biblical passages to be recited on entering the synagogue, and ethical directions for...
MEÏR BEN ELIJAH OF NORWICH – English poet; flourished about 1260 at Norwich. One long elegiac poem and fifteen smaller ones by him are found in a Vatican manuscript, from which they were published by A. Berliner (London, 1887). It is possible that Meïr was...
MEÏR (MOSES MEÏR) B. EPHRAIM OF PADUA – Scribe and printer at Mantua; died in Nov., 1583. After practising various professions he settled in Mantua as a scribe. He was well versed in Talmud, and was a friend of Moses Provencal. There were forty-three of his scrolls...
MEÏR BEN ISAAC OF ORLEANS – French liturgical poet and, possibly, Biblical commentator of the end of the eleventh century. Meïr and his son Eleazar are quoted in the commentary to I Chron. (xxix. 11) wrongly ascribed to Rashi. He composed several piyyuṭim,...
MEÏR B. ISAAC OF TRINQUETAILLE – French scholar of the twelfth century; a member of the family of Menahem Meïri of Perpignan. He was a native of Carcassonne, whence his father took him to Provence, where he soon became one of the most distinguished pupils of...
MELVILLE, LEWIS (LEWIS S. BENJAMIN) – English author; born in 1874. He is the author of the following works: "Life of Thackeray" (1899); "Thackeray's Stray Papers" (1902); "In the World of Mimes" (1902); and "Introduction to Thackeray's Works" (1903-4). He is a...
MEMOR-BOOK – A manuscript list of localities or countries in which Jews have been persecuted, together with the names of the martyrs, and necrologies. Memor-books are devoted primarily to the learned and influential, although others may be...
MEMORIAL DATES – Jewish communities, as a rule, have taken no note of birthdays of any of their members and only in rare cases of the dates of death. One of these cases is the anniversary of the day on which Gedaliah was assassinated (3d...
MIDWIFE – Biblical Data: Midwives are referred to in the Bible as having been employed among the Hebrews at an early period; thus Rachel and Tamar were assisted by midwives (Gen. xxxv. 17, xxxviii. 28). They were called in, however, only...
MENAHEM BEN JACOB BEN SOLOMON BEN SIMSON – German synagogal poet; died at Worms April 16, 1203. He was a member of an old family of Jewish scholars connected with that city. His great-grandfather Simson, who was living in Worms at the time of the First Crusade and was...
MENAHEM BEN SIMEON – French Biblical commentator at the end of the twelfth century; a native of Posquières and a pupil of Joseph Ḳimḥi. The Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (MS. No. 192, 1-2), contains Menahem's commentary to the books of Jeremiah and...
MENAHEM B. SOLOMON B. ISAAC – Author of the "Sekel Ṭob" and the "Eben Boḥan"; flourished in the first half of the twelfth century. The presence of twenty-five Italian glosses in his works indicates that he lived in Italy. The "Sekel Ṭob," written in 1139 at...
MENAHEM ZIONI (ẒIYYUNI) B. MEÏR OF SPEYER – Cabalist of the middle of the fifteenth century; author of the cabalistic commentary "Ẓiyyuni," from which he derives his name. He based his work upon Rashi and Naḥmanides, and especially upon the old cabalistic literature of...
MENANDER – 1. Putative author of a collection of proverbs, in a Syriac manuscript in the British Museum, edited in 1862 by Land, and bearing the superscription, "The sage Menander said." Either this Menander was a real person, a...
MENDELSSOHN – German family rendered illustrious by the philosopher and the musician. It can not verify its ancestry further back than the father of the philosopher, though there is a family tradition that it is descended from Moses...
MENDES – One of the oldest Sephardic families. It continued in Spain and in Spanish possessions long after 1492, the year of the general expulsion. Many members of the family and its connections undoubtedly succeeded that year in joining...
MENDES (MENDEZ), MOSES – English poet and dramatist; born in London; died at Old Buckenham, Norfolk, Feb. 4, 1758; son of James Mendes, a stock-broker of Mitcham, Surrey, and grandson of Fernando Mendes. He was educated partly at St. Mary Hall, Oxford...
MENDL, SIGISMUND FERDINAND – English politician; born 1866. He was educated at Harrow School and University College, Oxford, and in 1888 was admitted to the bar at the Inner Temple, London. After unsuccessfully contesting the Isle of Wight in 1892, and...
MENDOZA, DANIEL – English pugilist; born 1763 in White-chapel, London; died Sept. 3, 1836. Champion of England from 1792 to 1795, he was the founder of a distinct school of boxing which marks a period in the history of pugilism. In Miles's...