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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
MENKEN, ADA ISAACS – Anglo-American actress and writer; born June 15, 1835, at Milneburg, La.; died in Paris, France, Aug. 10, 1868. Her first appearance before the public was at the Opera-House, New Orleans, where she danced with her sister...
MENSTRUATION – The first appearance of the menses is known to depend on various factors—climate, occupation, residence in towns, etc.—of which racial affinities are the most important. Climate is of unquestionable influence, the earliest age...
MICHAEL – Israel's Advocate. One of the archangels one of the chief princes"; Dan. x. 13), who is also represented as the tutelary prince of Israel (ib. x. 21, xii. 1). The signification of the name (= "Who islike El"?) was recognized by...
MICHAEL – Israel's Advocate. One of the archangels one of the chief princes"; Dan. x. 13), who is also represented as the tutelary prince of Israel (ib. x. 21, xii. 1). The signification of the name (= "Who islike El"?) was recognized by...
MERAB – The elder of Saul's two daughters (I Sam. xiv. 49; xviii. 17, 19). Saul formally offered Merab's hand to David with the condition that the latter should distinguish himself in the warwith the Philistines. David did so, but Saul...
MERARI, MOSES MENAHEM – Poet and chief rabbi of Venice in the seventeenth century. He was one of the rabbis who signed the decision in regard to the stores in Ferrara. A Hebrew poem ("Shir") of his is found in the "Ḥanukkat ha-Bayit" of Moses Ḥefeẓ...
MERIDIAN, DATE- – Imaginary line fixed upon as the one along which the reckoning of the calendar day changes. East of this line the day is dated one day earlier than the west of it. The date-meridian involves many Jewish questions, such as fixing...
MERON – City of Galilee, situated on a mountain, three miles northwest of Safed and four miles south of Giscala, with which city it is almost always mentioned in the Talmud. One of the passages is: "One may eat olives [the product of...
SAMUEL BEN JUDAH – French physician and translator; born at Marseilles 1294. He devoted himself early in life to the study of science, especially philosophy. When he was about eighteen years old he went to Salon, where he studied astronomy under...
SASPORTAS – Spanish family of rabbis and scholars, the earliest known members of which lived at Oran, Algeria, at the end of the sixteenth century. The name seems to indicate that the family originally came from a place called Seisportas (=...
MESQUITA, MOSES GOMEZ DE – Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of England; born in 1688; died May 8, 1751. Mesquita was appointed haham in 1744, in succession to Isaac Nieto, who had resigned, and held the office until his death. He solemnized the...
MESSIAH – The Name. The name or title of the ideal king of the Messianic age; used also without the article as a proper name—"Mashiaḥ" (in the Babylonian Talmud and in the midrash literature), like Χριστός in the Gospels. The Grecized...
METALS – Although Deut. viii. 9 describes the Promised Land as one rich in ore, Palestine itself was really almost without metals, which had to be imported from neighboring countries. The passage in question is therefore taken by certain...
MEṬAṬRON – Name of an angel found only in Jewish literature. Elisha b. Abuyah, seeing this angel in the heavens, believed there were "two powers" or divinities (Ḥag. 15a, above). When God wept over the destruction of the Temple, Meṭaṭron...
METER IN THE BIBLE – State of the Question. The question whether the poetical passages of the Old Testament show signs of regular rhythm or meter is yet unsolved; the question involves principally Psalms, Proverbs, Job, and most of the prophetical...
METUENTES – Term used in the Latin inscriptions by Juvenal for Jewish proselytes. It corresponds to the Greek term σεβόμενοι τὸν Θεόν, which occurs in Josephus ("Ant." xiv. 72, ed. Niese) and in Acts x. 2, 22; xiii. 16, 26, 43, 50; xvi. 14;...
MIDRASH HALAKAH – The Term. Strictly speaking, the verification of the traditionally received Halakah by identifying its sources in the Bible and by interpreting these Scriptural passages as proofs of its authenticity. The term is applied also to...
MEYUḤAS – Oriental Jewish family which gave several rabbinical writers to Jerusalem and Constantinople.Abraham ben Samuel Meyuḥas: Rabbi in Turkey in the eighteenth century; author of "Sedeh ha-Areẓ," in three parts, the first two being...
WORMS – Frankfort and English family, tracing its descent from Aaron Worms of Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the eighteenth century. Aaron's great-great-grandson was created hereditary baron of the Austrian empire April 23,...
MICHAEL BEN SHABBETHAI COHEN BALBO – Greek scholar, Hebrew poet, and preacher; born March 27, 1411. A manuscript preserved in the Vatican (No. 305) contains several works of his, namely: a poem composed in 1453 on the occasion of the capture of Constantinople by...
MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID – Christian Orientalist and polyhistor; born at Halle Feb. 27, 1717; died at Göttingen Aug. 22, 1791; grandnephew of Johann Heinrich Michaelis. He was educated at the university of his native city, and made scientific journeys in...
MICHAELIS, JOHANN HEINRICH – German Christian theologian and Hebraist; born at Kletterberg July 26, 1668; died at Halle March 10, 1738. He studied Ethiopic under Ludolf at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and became assistant professor of Oriental languages at Halle...
MICHAL – The younger of the two daughters of Saul, probably by Ahinoam (I Sam. xiv. 49-50). David, then a boy of about sixteen, was to have married her sister Merab; but the latter having been given to another, and Michal having fallen...
MICHMASH – A town of Benjamin, east of Beth-aven (I Sam. xiii. 2 et passim; Neh. xi. 31). The form "Michmas" ( ) occurs in Ezra ii. 27 and in Neh. vii. 31, according to which the name may mean "hidden." Michmash is particularly known as...
MICROCOCCUS PRODIGIOSUS – A microscopical organism, first mentioned in 1819 by an Italian doctor, Vincenzo Sette, who observed it on polenta, a sort of Italian maize pudding, and gave it the strange name of Zaogalactina imetropha (from ζάω = "I live";...