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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
MICROCOSM – Man a Universe in Little. Philosophical term applied to man when contrasted with the universe, which, in this connection, is termed the macrocosm. The idea of an analogy between man and the universe was expressed by the ancient...
MIDDLEMAN, JUDAH – English rabbi of the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Netibot Emet," a work written in defense of the traditions of the Talmud against the attacks, in "Old Paths" ("Netibot 'Olam"), of the Rev....
MIDRASH – A term occurring as early as II Chron. xiii. 22, xxiv. 27, though perhaps not in the sense in which it came to be used later, and denoting "exposition," "exegesis," especially that of the Scriptures. In contradistinction to...
MIGRATION – Removal from one region to another. Ever since the Exile, Jews have been forced to wander from country to country, and a full history of their migrations would be almost identical with a complete history of that people.In the...
MIGRATION – Removal from one region to another. Ever since the Exile, Jews have been forced to wander from country to country, and a full history of their migrations would be almost identical with a complete history of that people.In the...
MILLENNIUM – Messianic Period an Interregnum. The reign of peace, lasting one thousand years, which will precede the Last Judgment and the future life. The concept has assumed especial importance in the Christian Church, where it is termed...
MILLET – An important species of grain which grows chiefly in sandy regions. In Arabia, Italy, and elsewhere a bread, excellent when fresh, is made of it, and also of the species Panicum italicum Linn. The grain is mentioned but once in...
MILMAN, HENRY HART – Historian; born in London Feb. 10, 1791; died there Sept. 24, 1868. His career at Oxford was a brilliant one. He first became known through his dramatic poems "Fazio" (1815), "Fall of Jerusalem," "Martyr of Antioch," and others....
MIN – Various Applications of the Term. Term used in the Talmud and Midrash for a Jewish heretic or sectarian. Its etymology is obscure, the most plausible among numerous explanations being that given by Bacher, namely, that it is...
MINḤAH PRAYER – The afternoon devotional service of the Jewish liturgy. The term is probably derived from Elijah's prayer at "the time of the offering of the evening ["minḥah"] sacrifice" (I Kings xviii. 36). Minḥah is one of the three daily...
MINTERS – Persons authorized to strike coinage on behalf of a government. As early as 555 a certain Priscus struck coins at Châlons ("R. E. J." x. 237). One Gideon was minter at Milan in the tenth century. In 1181 three Jews at Winchester...
MIRANDA, LALLA – Australian singer; born in Melbourne 1876. Both of her parents were singers, and she herself sang in public when only thirteen years of age. After completing her musical education in Europe, under Mdlle. de Garette, and Madame...
MIRROR – An object having a nearly perfect reflecting surface. In ancient times mirrors were invariably made of metal; in Egypt, of polished brass. It is no doubt this kind of mirror to which reference is made in Ex. xxxviii. 8 and in...
MITNAGGEDIM – Title applied by the Ḥasidim to their opponents, i.e., to the Orthodox Jews of the Slavonic countries who have not become adherents of Ḥasidism (see Jew. Encyc. vi. 254, s.v. Ḥasidim). The latter have in course of time accepted...
MIZPAH – Name of several places in Palestine. It is derived from (= "to look"), on account of which it is translated in certain instances by the Septuagint σκοπιά and ὅρασις, and by the Targumim (Gen. xxxi. 49). Except in Hosea v. 1,...
MOMBACH, JULIUS LAZARUS – Musician and composer; born in Pfungstadt 1813; died at London, England, Feb. 8, 1880. In 1828 he went to London and received a good musical education under Enoch Eliasson. On the election of Simon Ascher to the position of...
MOND, LUDWIG – English chemist; born at Cassel, Germany, March 7, 1839; educated at the Polytechnic School, Cassel, and at the universities of Marburg and Heidelberg. In 1862 he went to England and engaged in the Le Blanc soda industry,...
MONTAGU, HYMAN – English numismatist and lawyer; died in London Feb. 18, 1895; son of Samuel Moses (having later assumed the name ofMontagu); educated at the City of London School. Articled to a firm of lawyers, he passed his final examination...
MONTAGU, SIR SAMUEL, Bart. – English banker and communal worker; born at Liverpool Dec. 21, 1832; son of Louis Samuel, his name, "Montagu Samuel," having been in his early boyhood reversed by his parents. He went to London in 1847, and in 1853 founded the...
MONTALBAN – City in Aragon; not to be confused with Montalban in Castile, in the archbishopric of Toledo, which was also inhabited by Jews. Montalban possessed a Jewish community as early as the fourteenth century. In 1306 the governor of...
SHEM-ṬOB BEN ISAAC OF TORTOSA – Abandons Commerce for Rabbinics. Spanish scholar and physician of the thirteenth century; born at Tortosa 1196. He engaged in commerce, and his business necessitated his traveling much both by sea and by land. Being once at...
MONTEFIORE – Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the...
MONTEFIORE – Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the...
MONTEFIORE – Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the...
MONTEFIORE – Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the...