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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
NEWMAN, ALFRED ALVAREZ – English metal-worker and art-collector; born in London 1851; died there 1887. He revived the blacksmith's art in its medieval phases and was the founder of the Old English smithy in Archer street, Haymarket,London. Being a...
NEWMAN, SELIG – German Hebraist; born at Posen, Prussian Poland, in 1788; died at Williamsburg, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1871. He was educated at Posen, but in 1814 went to England and was appointed minister to the Plymouth congregation, teaching Hebrew...
NEWPORT – One of the capitals of the state of Rhode Island, U. S. A. Before the American Revolution, Newport excelled New York as a commercial center and port of entry; to-day, however, it is no longer of commercial importance, but has...
NIETO, DAVID – Haham of the Sephardic community in London; born at Venice 1654; died in London Jan. 10, 1728. He first practised as a physician and officiated as a Jewish preacher at Leghorn, Italy. There he wrote in Italian a work entitled...
NIETO, ISAAC – Haham of the Portuguese congregation Sha'are Shamaim, Bevis Marks, London; born 1702; died at London 1774; son of David Nieto. He was officially appointed as "ḥakam ha-shalem" in 1733, but gave up the post in 1741 and went...
NISSIM BEN MOSES OF MARSEILLES – Philosopher of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. He was the author of a philosophical commentary on the Pentateuch, written about 1306, when the struggle between the Orthodox and the friends of philosophy was at its...
NÖLDEKE, THEODOR – German Orientalist; born March 2, 1836, at Harburg. He studied Oriental languages at Göttingen, Vienna, Leyden, and Berlin; became assistant professor of Semitic languages at Göttingen in 1864; was appointed to a professorship...
NORDEN, JOSHUA D. – English soldier and adventurer; died at Graham's Town, Cape Colony, April 26, 1846. He was field commandant in the Kaffir war and a captain of yeomanry, and commanded the mounted force that was sent against the Kaffirs in 1846....
NORTHAMPTON – Capital of Northamptonshire, England. Jews were living there as early as 1180, when it is recorded that Samuel of Northampton, for obtaining a divorce from his wife, owed the king 5 marks. Four years later he made arrangements...
NORWICH – Capital town of the county of Norfolk, England. After London, Oxford, and Cambridge, it is the earliest English town mentioned as being inhabited by Jews. The so-called martyrdom of William of Norwich—the first case of blood...
NORZI – Italian family, many members of which were distinguished as scholars and rabbis. Probably the family name is derived from the town of Norcia. According to Mortara, there were two distinct families of the name at Mantua—one from...
NOSE – Anthropologists who consider the nose an important racial index (Topinard, Bertillon, Deniker, and others) in their classifications of varieties of noses have one class which they call "Jewish," or "Semitic"—prominent, arched,...
NUMISMATICS – No Coins Before Maccabeans. The study of Jewish coinage, strictly speaking, begins with the Maccabean period. Some information, however, concerning the use of money, or substitutes for money, among the Jews previous to the...
NUNES, ROBERT – Jamaican magistrate; born in Montego Bay, Jamaica, Dec. 12, 1820; died at Falmouth, Jamaica, Jan. 31, 1889. Originally destined for the medical profession, he studied under Doctors Spence and Gordon for three years. He then...
NUNES DA ALMEYDA, MANUELA – Spanish poetess; born in London; mother of Mordecai Nunes Almeyda, the patron of the Spanish poet Daniel Israel Lopez Laguna. Together with her two gifted daughters, Benvenida Cohen Belmonte and Sara de Fonseca Pina y Pimentel,...
NUÑEZ-VAES, JACOB – Editor and rabbi of Leghorn, Italy; died there about 1815; son of Isaac Joseph Nuñez-Vaes, and pupil of Isaac Nuñez Belmonte. David b. Raphael Meldola wrote an elegy in his memory (Leghorn, 1815). Nuñez-Vaes, besides publishing...
NUÑEZ – Marano family, of which the following members are known:Beatriz Nuñez: Burned, at the age of sixty, at the auto da fé held in Madrid July 4, 1632.Clara Nuñez: Martyred at Seville together with Francisco Lopez, son of the...
NUÑEZ-VAES, ISAAC JOSEPH – Rabbi at Leghorn, Italy; died before 1788. A follower of the Cabala, he was highly respected by his contemporaries for his knowledge and his piety. He published "Siaḥ Yiẓḥaḳ" (Leghorn, 1766), novellæ to the treatise Yoma, with...
NUREMBERG – Most important commercial city of Bavaria. According to Wagenseil ("De Civitate Norimburgiæ," p. 71), Jews were living in Nuremberg as early as the beginning of the twelfth century. A tombstone bearing the name of Elijah b....
OCAÑA – Town of Castile which had a Jewish community at an early date. When the Jews, who had previously enjoyed full privileges, began to be oppressed and curtailed in their liberties by the Christian population of the city, D....
OCCUPATIONS – The ancient Hebrews were farmers, fishermen, artisans, etc., very seldom merchants. Solomon's endeavors to stimulate commerce among them bore no lasting fruit. Outside of their country they were not always allowed to acquire...
OCCUPATIONS – The ancient Hebrews were farmers, fishermen, artisans, etc., very seldom merchants. Solomon's endeavors to stimulate commerce among them bore no lasting fruit. Outside of their country they were not always allowed to acquire...
OFFENBACH – Town in the province of Starkenburg in the grand duchy of Hesse. When Fettmilch caused the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfort-on-the-Main on Aug. 22, 1614, they proceeded up the river with an armed escort; but, although they...
OLIPHANT, LAURENCE – English traveler, author, and politician; born at Cape Town in 1829; died at Twickenham, England, Dec. 23, 1888. He traveled in nearly every country and engaged in many occupations, from filibustering with Walker in Nicaragua to...
OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS – German Orientalist; born in Hohenfelde May 9, 1800; died at Berlin Dec. 22, 1882; educated at the universities of Kiel (Ph.D. 1823), Berlin, and Paris. He became professor of Oriental languages at Kiel in 1830, but lost this...