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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
OMAR I. (IBN AL-KHAṬṬAB) – Second calif; succeeded Abu Bakr in 634 C.E.; assassinatedin 644. Omar I. was the great champion and organizer of Islam, and through his force of character and his influence over Mohammed and Abu Bakr he ruled long before he...
OPPENHEIM – German town in the province of Rhein-Hessen. The earliest documents relating to Jews in Oppenheim date back to the thirteenth century. Unlike their coreligionists in other parts of Germany, the Jews of Oppenheim in the Middle...
OPPENHEIM, LEWIS – English physician; born in London Dec., 1832; died there Jan. 7, 1895. He studied for the medical profession, entering as a student at the London Hospital in 1850. In 1853 he went to the Crimea, and was attached to the medical...
OPPENHEIM, MORRIS SIMEON – English lawyer; born in London 1824; died there Jan. 3, 1883; son of Simeon Oppenheim, secretary of the Great Synagogue. He became secretary to the Jews' and General Literary Institution (Sussex Hall), and while acting in this...
OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM – Philosophical and theological systems according to which this world and human life are considered as essentially good or essentially evil. Plato, Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, Nicolaus Cusanus, and especially Leibnitz, Wolf, and...
OPPENHEIMER, SIR CHARLES – British consul-general at Frankfort-on-the-Main; born at Nastätten, Nassau, 1836; died at Frankfort June 21, 1900. He received his education in the latter city, and, emigrating to London at the age of eighteen, established...
ORNSTEIN, ABRAHAM PHILIP – English rabbi; born in London 1836; died at Cape Town Dec. 6, 1895. He was at first a teacher in the Jews' Free School, London, and at eighteen became minister to the Portsea congregation. In 1860 he removed to Birmingham as...
SAMARITANS – Properly, inhabitants of Samaria. The name is now restricted to a small tribe of people living in Nablus (Shechem) and calling themselves "Bene Yisrael," or sometimes . Their history as a distinct community begins with the...
SAMARITANS – Properly, inhabitants of Samaria. The name is now restricted to a small tribe of people living in Nablus (Shechem) and calling themselves "Bene Yisrael," or sometimes . Their history as a distinct community begins with the...
SAMBARI (CATTAWI?), JOSEPH BEN ISAAC – Egyptian chronicler of the seventeenth century; lived probably at Alexandria between 1640 and 1703. Of lowly origin and in the employ of Rabbi Joseph Ḥen, he spent his leisure time in historic studies, finding a mass of...
OXFORD – County town of Oxfordshire, England. According to Anthony à Wood, Jews settled there almost immediately after the Conquest. They located along Fish street (now St. Aldate) from Carfax to the great gate of Christ Church, forming...
PACIFICO CASE – An affair arising out of a claim made on the Greek government by one David Pacifico, commonly known as "Don Pacifico" (born a British subject at Gibraltar 1784; died in London April 12, 1854). Pacifico first began business at...
PAHLAVI LITERATURE, JEWS IN – In the "Dinkard." The Pahlavi or Middle Persian literature, extending approximately from the third to the tenth century C.E., is devoted mainly to the theology of Zoroastrianism. In its polemics, therefore, it naturally mentions...
PALACHE, SAMUEL – Moroccan envoy sent by the King of Morocco to the Netherlands about 1591; subsequently acted as consul there; died at The Hague 1616. He proposed to the magistrates of Middleburg in Zealand to make that town an asylum for the...
PALEOGRAPHY – Greek and Latin Inscriptions: Besides a certain number of pagan inscriptions mentioning Jewish affairs, about 500 texts referring directly to persons professing the Jewish religion are known. These have been found throughout the...
PALESTINE – The Name. The portion of Syria which was formerly the possession of the Israelites. It includes the whole of the country between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean as well as the country immediately to the east of the...
PALESTINE – The Name. The portion of Syria which was formerly the possession of the Israelites. It includes the whole of the country between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean as well as the country immediately to the east of the...
PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF – The sacredness of Palestine in the esteem of the Jews is partly accounted for by the fact that it was the cradle and sepulcher of their Patriarchs and their "Promised Land." Moreover, many of the Mosaic laws could apply to...
PALEY, JOHN – American journalist; born Feb. 6, 1871, at Radoszkowice, government of Wilna, Russia. After receiving the usual education, he attended the Talmudical colleges of Minsk, Volosin, and Libau. In 1889 he emigrated to New York,where...
PALGRAVE (COHEN), SIR FRANCIS – English historian; born in London July, 1788; died there July 6, 1861; son of Meyer Cohen, a member of the London Stock Exchange. He was an infant prodigy. At the age of eight he made a translation of Homer's "Battle of the...
PALMYRA – Latin name of a city in a well-watered oasis of the Syrian desert, five days' journey from the Euphrates, between three and four days from Thapsakus, and three days from Aleppo. Palmyra was situated on the highway leading from...
PARENZO, ASHER B. JACOB – Hebrew printer in Venice from 1580 to 1600; brother of the printer Meïr b. Jacob. He was employed by Giovanni Bragadin in printing a large number of works of Hebrew literature; among them were: Isaac Abravanel's commentary on...
PARIS – Capital city of France. There were Jews in Paris prior to the date of the Frankish invasion. The councils of Varennes in 465 and of Orleans in 533, 538, and 541 adopted certain measures against the Jews, from which it would...
PARISH-ALVARS, ELIAS – English harpist and composer; born at Teignmouth, England, Feb. 28, 1810; died at Vienna Jan. 25, 1849; a pupil of Dizi, Labarre, and Bochsa. In 1831 he visited Germany and played at Bremen, Hamburg, and other cities with great...
PARODY – A composition either in verse or in prose, modeled more or less closely on an original work, or class of original works, but by its method of treatment turning the serious sense of such original or originals into ridicule....