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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
RASHI (SOLOMON BAR ISAAC) – His Teachers. French commentator on Bible and Talmud; born at Troyes in 1040; died there July 13, 1105. His fame has made him the subject of many legends. The name of Yarḥi, applied to him as early as the sixteenth century,...
RASHI (SOLOMON BAR ISAAC) – His Teachers. French commentator on Bible and Talmud; born at Troyes in 1040; died there July 13, 1105. His fame has made him the subject of many legends. The name of Yarḥi, applied to him as early as the sixteenth century,...
RASHI (SOLOMON BAR ISAAC) – His Teachers. French commentator on Bible and Talmud; born at Troyes in 1040; died there July 13, 1105. His fame has made him the subject of many legends. The name of Yarḥi, applied to him as early as the sixteenth century,...
PASS, AARON DE – South-African pioneer; together with his brother Elias de Pass, he was connected with Cape Colony from the year 1846. His firm, De Pass, Spence & Co., performed conspicuous services in the development of the whaling, sealing,...
SATIRE – Biblical Examples. Ironical and veiled attack, mostly in verse. Among the Hebrews satire made its appearance with the advent of the usurper. The tradition runs that when Abimelech, the son of a maid-servant, treacherously slew...
PEACE, KISS OF – Sacramental rite in the Christian Church, preceding the mass or communion service. It appears to be referred to in Rom. xvi. 16, I Cor. xvi. 20, II Cor. xiii. 12, and elsewhere, and is referred to by Justin Martyr ("Apologia,"...
PEDAGOGICS – The science of education. The fundamental law of Biblical pedagogy is that the child should be instructed in the doctrines of religion and should know them so clearly that he will realize that he ought to live in accordance with...
PEDIGREE – Table of descent and relationship; sometimes given in narrative form. Jews have always carefully recorded their genealogies (see article), but owing to their wide and frequent dispersions very few can trace their descent further...
SAXONY – Kingdom of the German empire. Jews are reported to have appeared in Saxony before the year 1000, in the train of the Lombards, settling principally in the cities of Merseburg, Naumburg, Torgau, and Meissen (B. Lindau, "Gesch....
PENTATEUCH – The five books of Moses. The word is a Greek adaptation of the Hebrew expression "ḥamishshah ḥumshe ha-Torah" (five-fifths of the Law) applied to the books Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, and indicating...
PEREIRA, JONATHAN – English physician and medical writer; born in London May 22, 1804; died there Jan. 20, 1853. He was educated at the Aldersgate General Dispensary and at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, graduating as apothecary in 1823, and receiving...
PERPIGNAN – Disabilities and Restrictions. Ancient capital of the county of Roussillon, now the chief town of the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, France. Jews probably lived in Perpignan in the latter half of the twelfth century; for in...
PERSIA – One of the great kingdoms of the ancient world and a country connected in various ways with the history of the Jews since the time of the Babylonian captivity. As a designation the name "Persia" is employed in two ways:...
SONCINO – Italian family of printers, deriving its name from the town of Soncino, in the duchy of Milan. It traces its descent through a Moses of fürth, who is mentioned in 1455, back to a certain Moses of Speyer, of the middle of the...
SONCINO – Italian family of printers, deriving its name from the town of Soncino, in the duchy of Milan. It traces its descent through a Moses of fürth, who is mentioned in 1455, back to a certain Moses of Speyer, of the middle of the...
PHILLIPS, GEORGE LYON – Jamaican politician; born in 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, Dec. 29, 1886. One of the most prominent and influential residents of Jamaica, he held the chief magistrateship of the privy council and other important executive...
PESARO – Rivalry with Ancona. Town in the Marches, Italy, formerly belonging to the duchy of Urbino. It has numbered some Jews among its inhabitants since the fifteenth century. One of the first Hebrew printers, Abraham b. Ḥayyim dei...
PESEL – Usually carved in wood, or hewn in stone, and called "massekah"; the ephod belonged to it as covering, as in the case of Gideon ("pesel of Gideon") and Micah (Judges xviii. 18 [xvii. 4, 5, Hebr.]). The worship of it was...
PETER OF ALESSANDRIA (PETRUS DE ALEXANDRIA) – Italian monk of the fourteenth century; born at Alessandria, Italy. He translated about 1342, at the request of Pope Clement VI., the treatise of Levi ben Gershon on his astronomical instrument which subsequently had some...
PICART, BERNARD – Title-Page from the "Tiḳḳun Soferim," Designed by Bernard Picart.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)French designer and engraver; born at Paris June 11, 1673; died at...
PHENICIA – A district of somewhat indefinite limits stretching for about 200 miles along the east coast of the Mediterranean and extending inland from five to fifteen miles. The eastern boundary was the Lebanon range, while Ptolemy...
PHILIP – 1. Son of Herod and Cleopatra of Jerusalem; ruled from 4 B.C. to 34 C.E. When Herod changed his will in the year 4, shortly before his death, he appointed Philip tetrarch of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Batanæa, and Paneas. After...
PHILLIPS, SIR BENJAMIN SAMUEL – Lord mayor of London; born in London in 1811; died there Oct. 9, 1889. He was a son of Samuel Phillips, tailor, and was educated at Neumegen's school at Highgate and Kew. In 1833 he married, and soon afterward entered into...
PHILLIPS, PHINEAS – Polish merchant; flourished about 1775. He held the position of chief of the Jewish community at Krotoschin, at that time a fief of the princes of Thurn and Taxis. The reigning prince held Phillips in considerable esteem and...
PHILLIPS, SAMUEL – English journalist; born at London 1815; died at Brighton Oct., 1854. He was the son of an English merchant, and at fifteen years of age made his début as an actor at Covent Garden. Influential friends then placed him at...