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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
PHYLACTERIES – Legal View: Phylactery-Bag.(In the British Museum.)The laws governing the wearing of phylacteries were derived by the Rabbis from four Biblical passages (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18; Ex. xiii. 9, 16). While these passages were...
PICCIOTTO, HAIM MOSES – Communal worker; born at Aleppo 1806; died at London, England, Oct. 19, 1879. He was a member of an ancient Eastern family; his immediate ancestors were engaged in the Russian consular service. He went to England about 1843, and...
SONG OF THE THREE HOLY CHILDREN, THE – Greek insertion in the Book of Daniel after iii. 23, the only one of the additions to Daniel that really add to the text of the book. The title given above is inexact: under it are included two distinct pieces, namely, (1) the...
PICTORIAL ART – There are no ancient remains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of Bible times made use of painting for decorative or other purposes. For the references in the Bible See Painting. During the Middle Ages painting was a craft...
PIMENTEL, SARA DE FONSECA PINA Y – Poetess of Spanish descent; lived in England in the early part of the eighteenth century, as did also Abraham Henriques Pimentel. She wrote "Espejo Fiel de Vidas" (London, 1720), laudatory Spanish verses on the Spanish metrical...
WILLIAM OF NORWICH – Alleged victim of ritual murder by Jews at Norwich in 1144. He may therefore claim to be the protomartyr of this class of pseudo-martyrdom. According to the boy's own family, he was enticed away on Monday, March 21, 1144, to...
PINERO (PINHEIROS), ARTHUR WING – English dramatist; born in London May 24, 1855; eldest son of John Daniel Pinero. He is descended from a Sephardic family. As a boy Pinero was articled to a firm of solicitors; and while in their office he absorbed much of that...
PINHEIRO, MOSES – One of the most influential pupils and followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi; lived at Leghorn in the seventeenth century. He was held in high esteem on account of his acquirements; and, as the brother-in-law of Joseph Ergas, the...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PINTO – Family of financiers, rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto,...
PIRBRIGHT, HENRY DE WORMS, BAR-ON – English statesman; born in London 1840; died at Guildford, Surrey, Jan. 9, 1903; third son of Solomon Benedict de Worms, a baron of the Austrian empire. He was educated at King's College, London, and became a barrister in 1863....
PIRḲE DE-RABBI ELI'EZER – Haggadicmidrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers; ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus, and composed in Italy shortly after 833. It is quoted immediately before the end of the twelfth century under...
PLACE-NAMES – The geographical names of Palestine are not so often susceptible of interpretation as the personal names, which frequently form regular sentences referring to divine action (see Names). The majority of place-names, probably,...
POETRY – Biblical: The question whether the literature of the ancient Hebrews includes portions that may be called poetry is answered by the ancient Hebrews themselves. A distinction between different classes of writings is evident in...
POETRY – Biblical: The question whether the literature of the ancient Hebrews includes portions that may be called poetry is answered by the ancient Hebrews themselves. A distinction between different classes of writings is evident in...
PLYMOUTH – Seaport in the county of Devon, England; one of the principal ports of that country. A few Jewish families were living there in 1740. Among the synagogue deeds is a lease of a garden, dated 1752, the signature to which is...
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE – First Appearance in Egypt. Although pagan nations as a rule were not prone to intolerance in matters of religion, they were so with regard to Judaism. They were highly incensed against the people which treated so contemptuously...
POLLITZER, ADOLPH – Violinist; born at Budapest July 23, 1832; died in London Nov. 14, 1900. In 1842 he left Budapest for Vienna, where he studied the violin under Böhm; and in his fourteenth year he took the first prize at the Vienna...
POPES, THE – General Principles. The Roman Church does not claim any jurisdiction over persons who have not been baptized; therefore the relations of the popes, as the heads of the Church, to the Jews have been limited to rules regarding the...
PORTSMOUTH – English fortified seaport on the coast of Hampshire. The Portsmouth (Portsea) congregation is one of the oldest in the English provinces, having been founded in 1747 with a rabbinate of its own. During the Napoleonic wars the...
PRAG, JACOB – Professor of Hebrew and rabbi at Liverpool; born at Danzig 1816; died at Liverpool Dec., 1881. He studied at the rabbinical school at Libau and occupied his first position at the age of eighteen. He was afterward appointed rabbi...
PRAG, JOSEPH – English communal and Zionist worker; born at Liverpool in 1859; educated at the Liverpool Institute and at Queen's College, Liverpool. Prag has long been a leader in Zionist circles, but does not follow the Herzl movement,...
PREFACES AND DEDICATIONS – The general Hebrew name for a preface is "haḳdamah." The saying "A book without a preface is like a body without a soul" is often quoted by authors as a reason for the preface. The origin of the preface may be traced to the...
PRESBYTER JUDÆORUM – Chief official of the Jews of England in pre-expulsion times. The office appears to have been for life, though in two or three instances the incumbent either resigned or was dismissed. Prynne, in his "Demurrer" (ii. 62), argues...